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 Peace and Security


Tony Addison, From conflict to recovery in Africa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Muthiah Alagappa, International security management and the UN (Tokyo: UN University Press, 1999).
This academic work addresses the role of the United Nations in the international security environment of the post-Cold War era and what potential advantage the UN may have over other entities.

James H. Allan, Peacekeeping: outspoken observations by a field officer (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996).

Pam Ballinger, “Opting for Identity: The Politics of International Refugee Relief in Venezia Guilia, 1948-1952,” Acta Histriae 14, no. 1 (2006): 115-136.

GJ Bass, Freedom's battle: The origins of humanitarian intervention (New York: Knopf, 2008).

Mats Berdal and Spyros Economides, United Nations interventionism, 1991-2004 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007).

Eric G. Berman and Katie E. Sams, Peacekeeping in Africa: capabilities and culpabilities (Geneva: UN Institute for Disarmament Research, 2000).

Bernhard Blumenau. The United Nations and Terrorism. Germany, Multilateralism, and Antiterrorism Efforts in the 1970s. Palgrave Macmillan, September 2014.

Bernhard Blumenau, “The Other Battleground of the Cold War: The UN and the Struggle against International Terrorism in the 1970s,” Journal of Cold War Studies 16:1 (Winter, 2014): 61-84.

Paul Boghossian, “The Concept of Genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research 12.1-2 (2010), 69-80.

David L. Bosco, Five to Rule them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Sumantra Bose, Contested Lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus, and Sri Lanka (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).

Jane Boulden, Dealing with conflict in Africa: the United Nations and regional organizations (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Susan Burgerman, Moral victories: how activists provoke multilateral action (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).

Giuseppe Caforio and Gerhard Kummel, Military missions and their implications reconsidered: the aftermath of September 11th (Boston: Elsevier, 2005).

Richard Caplan (ed.), Exit strategies and state building (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

Demetrios J. Caraley, The new American interventionism: lessons from successes and failures (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).

Andrew Clapham, The Human Rights Obligation of Non-State Actors (Oxford University Press, 2006).
This book examines the legal protection of human rights in situations where the threats to the enjoyment of human rights come from non-state actors rather than directly from state agents. Such an application of human rights law to the private sphere has implications for the ways in which we conceive human rights generally

Simon Chesterman, You, the people: the United Nations, transitional administration, and state-building (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004).

G. D. Cohen, In war's wake: Europe's displaced persons in the postwar order (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Katherine P. Coleman, International organizations and peace enforcement: the politics of international legitimacy (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007).

Alex Conte, Security in the 21st century: the United Nations, Afghanistan, and Iraq (Burlington: Ashgate, 2005).

Richard H. Cooper and Juliette Voïnov Kohler, The responsibility to protect: the global moral compact for the 21st century (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
This collection of essays presents perspectives on the right to protect, the international relations concept advocating that the international community has a responsibility to intervene to preempt genocide or a humanitarian crisis. This work advocates for the potential and benefits that may accrue from R2P.

David Cortright, George A. Lopez, et al., The sanctions decade: assessing UN strategist in the 1990s (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000).

Peter G. Danchin and Horst Fischer, United Nations reform and the new collective security (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010).

Juergen Dedring, The United Nations Security Council in the 1990s: resurgence and renewal (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008).

Paul F. Diehl, International Peacekeeping (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994).
In Diehl’s study of UN peacekeeping operations, he argues that UN operations have mostly failed due to potential impediments that a peacekeeping force might pose to a peace process (e.g. the presence of forces reducing the desire for conflict resolution). Examples of conflicts profiled include: UNEF, Somalia, Cambodia, and Yugoslavia.

James Dobbins et al., The UN’s role in nation building: from the Congo to Iraq (Santa Monica: Rand, 2005).

Michael W. Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis, Making war and building peace: United Nations peace operations (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2006).

Mark Duffield, “Governing the Borderlands: Decoding the power of Aid”, in Disasters 25 (4), 308-320, 2001.
This article examines aid practice, that is, the public-private contractual networks that link donor governments, UN agencies, and military establishments, NGOs, private companies and others, as a relation of global liberal governance. In order to fulfill this function, such networks embody what could be called the 'securitization' of international assistance. Based upon ideas of human security and ameliorating the effects of poverty and vulnerability reduction, aid is now seen as playing a direct security role.

William J. Durch, UN peacekeeping, American politics, and the uncivil wars of the 1990s (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996).

Kristen Eichensehr and W. Michael Reisman, Stopping wars and making peace: studies in international intervention (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Press, 2009).

Bernard J. Firestone, The United Nations under U Thant, 1961-1971 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001).

Peter Gatrell, The making of the modern refugee (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Christine Gray, International law and the use of force (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008).

Kelly M. Greenhill, Weapons of mass migration: Forced displacement, coercion, and foreign policy (2011).
Review on H-Diplo available here.

Heiner Hanggi and Vincenza Scherrer, Security sector reform and UN integrated missions: experience from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, and Kosovo (London: Global, 2008).

Paul Higate, Gender and peacekeeping: case studies: the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2004).

Paul Higate and Marsha Henry, Insecure spaces: peacekeeping, power and performance in Haiti, Kosovo and Liberia (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

Tor Tanke Holm and Espen Barth Eide, Peacebuilding and police reform (London: Frank Cass, 2000).

Paul Kennedy, The Parliament of Man: Peacekeeping and War making (New York: Random House, 2006).

Chen Kertcher, "From Cold War to a System of Peacekeeping Operations: The Discussions on Peacekeeping Operations in the UN during the 1980s up to 1992," Journal of Contemporary History 47.3 (2012): 611-637.

Jean Krasno, Bradd C. Hayes, and Donald C.F. Daniel, Leveraging for success in United Nations peace operations (Westport: Praeger, 2003).

Adam LeBor, Complicity with evil: the United Nations in the age of modern genocide (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).
Ingrid A. Lehmann, Peacekeeping and public information: caught in the crossfire (London: F. Cass, 1999).

Chandra Lekha Sriram and Karin Wermester, From promise to practice: strengthening UN capacities for the prevention of violent conflict (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 2003).

Edward Luck, UN Security Council: Practice and Promise (London: Routledge, 2006).

S. Neil Macfarlane and Yuen Foong Khong, Human Security and the UN: A Critical History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006).

David M. Malone, The UN Security Council: from the Cold War to the 21st century (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2004).

James Mayall, The New interventionism, 1991-1994: United Nations experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia (Cambridge: Cambridge, UK, 1996).

Sarah Meharg and Aleisha Arnusch, Security sector reform: a case study approach to transition and capacity building (Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, 2010).

Kurt Mills, "R2P3: Protecting, prosecuting, or palliating in mass atrocity situations?" Journal of Human Rights 12.2 (2013), pp. 333-356.

Rana Mitter, "Imperialism, Transnationalism, and the Reconstruction of Post-war China: UNRRA in China, 1944-7," Past and Present 218 (2013) suppl. 8: 51-69.

Mike Moriarity, An Irish soldier’s diaries (Cork: Mercier, 2010).

Hitoshi Nasu, International law on peacekeeping: a study of article 40 of the UN charter (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2009).
Edward Newman, Roland Paris, and Oliver P. Richmond, New perspectives on liberal peace building (New York: United Nations University Press, 2009).

Manfred Nowak, Introduction to the international human rights regime (Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003).

SCM Paine, Nation building, state building, and economic development: case studies and comparison (New York: ME Sharpe, 2010).

Jessica Reinisch, " 'Auntie UNRRA' at the Crossroads," Past and Present 218 (2013) suppl. 8: 70-97.

Jessica Reinisch, “Internationalism in Relief: The Birth (and Death) of UNRRA,” in Mark Mazower, Jessica Reinisch, and David Feldman, eds, Post-War Reconstruction in Europe: International Perspectives, 1945-1949 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 258-289.

Jessica Reinisch, “‘We Shall Rebuild Anew A Powerful Nation’: UNRRA, Internationalism and National Reconstruction in Poland,” Journal of Contemporary History 43, no. 3 (2008): 451-476.

Adam Seipp, Strangers in the wild place: Refugees, Americans, and a German town, 1945-1952 (Indiana University Press, 2013).
This book investigates the place that had functioned as a Nazi military training site and then became the largest Displaced Persons camp after World War II. UNRRA plays a key role in the story.

Arturo C. Sotomayor, The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper: Civil-Military Relations and the United Nations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Scott Strauss, “Contested Meanings and Conflicted Imperatives: A Conceptual Analysis of Genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research 3.3. (2001), 349-375.

Carsten Stehn and Henning Molher, eds., Peace Diplomacy, Global Justice and International Age. Rethinking Human Security and Ethics in the Spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Ramesh Thakur, The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Paul van Tongeren, Hans van de Veen, and Juliette Verhoeven (eds.), Searching for peace in Europe and Eurasia: an overview of conflict prevention and peace building activities (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002).

Teresa Whitfield, Friends indeed? The United Nations, Groups of Friends, and the Resolution of Conflicts (Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 2007).

Siobhan Wills, Protecting civilians: the obligations of peacekeepers (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009).

Thomas G. Weiss et al., The United Nations and changing world politics (Boulder: Westview Press, 2010).

Eyal Weizman, The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza (2012).

Stephen Wertheim, “A Solution from Hell: The United States and the Rise of Humanitarian Interventionism, 1991-2003,” Journal of Genocide Research 12.3-4 (2010), 149-172.

Adrian Wood, Raymond Apthorpe, and John Borton, Evaluating international humanitarian action: reflections from practitioners (New York: Palgrave, 2001).

Ralph Zacklin, The United Nations Secretariat and the use of force in a unipolar world: power v. principle (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010).

Laura Zanotti, Governing disorder: UN peace operations, international security, and democratization in the post-Cold War era (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 2011).



Asia Pacific

Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)

Phillip Corwin, Doomed in Afghanistan: a UN officer’s memoir of the fall of Kabul and Najibullah’s failed escape (New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 2003).

Mohammad Khalid Ma’aroof, United Nations and Afghanistan crisis (New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers, 1990).

UNDP, Afghanistan’s New Beginnings Programme (Kabul: UNDP Afghanistan, 2006).

Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)

Ramses Amer, Johan Saravanamuttu, and Peter Wallensteen, The Cambodian Conflict, 1979-1991: from intervention to resolution (Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 1996).

Michael W. Doyle, UN peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC’s civil mandate (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995).

Trevor Findlay, Cambodia: the legacy and lessons of UNTAC (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995).

Steve Heder and Judy Ledgerwood (eds.), Propaganda, politics, and violence in Cambodia: democratic transition under United Nations peacekeeping (Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 1996).

Caroline Hughes, UNTAC in Cambodia: the impact on human rights (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1996).

Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) of Singapore and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (London: Kluwer Law International, 1995).

Zhou Mei, Radio UNTAC of Cambodia: winning ears, hearts, and minds (Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994).

Boraden Nhem, A continuation of politics by other means: the “politics” of a peacekeeping mission in Cambodia (1992-1993) (Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, 2011).
Departing from conventional wisdom, which addresses factors such as mandates, spoilers, which ignores political factors, the author explores the Cambodian conflict and peace operations as a complex and interactive situation in which local political conditions were paramount and directly challenged UN peacekeeping principles of neutrality. He observes that UN peacekeeping missions can be too tied to theory and doctrine while ignoring reality, and argues for missions that understand the inherent complexity of peacekeeping, recognize emerging realities, and adapt accordingly.

Sorpong Peou, Conflict neutralization in the Cambodia war: from battlefield to ballot box (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford UP, 1997).

Tom Riddle, Cambodian interlude: inside the United Nations’ 1993 election (Bangkok: White Orchid Press, 1997).

Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF)

Nonie Sharp, The rule of the sword: the story of West Irian (Malmsbury, Victoria, Australia: Kibble Books, 1977).

Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)

Bob Breen, Mission accomplished, East Timor (St. Leonard’s: Allen and Unwin, 2000).

Geoffrey C. Gunn and Reyko Huang, New nation: United Nations peace-building in East Timor (Nagasaki: G.C. Gunn, 2006).

Jaime S. de los Santos and Arnulfo Marcelo B. Burgos, Jr., Restoring hope: peacekeeping the East Timor experience (Quezon City: AM Cleofe Prints, 2001).

David Savage, Dancing with the devil: a personal account of policing the East Timor vote for independence (Clayton: Monash Asia Institute, 2002).

Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

Jan Asmussen, Cyprus at war: diplomacy and conflict during the 1974 crisis (New York: IB Tauris, 2008).

Neil Briscoe, Britain and UN peacekeeping, 1948-67 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Brigadier Francis Henn, A business of some heat: the United Nations force in Cyprus before and during the 1974 Turkish Invasion (Yorkshire: Pen & Sword, 2004).

Joseph S. Joseph, Cyprus: ethnic conflict and international politics (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997).

Zaim M. Necatigil, The Cyprus question and the Turkish position in international law (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989).

Oliver P. Richmond and James Ker-Lindsay (eds.), The work of the UN in Cyprus: promoting peace and development (New York: Palgrave, 2001).

H. Ibrahim Salih, Cyprus: ethnic political counterpoints (Dallas: University Press of America, 2004).

Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Pauline Dawson, The peacekeepers of Kashmir: the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994).

Bernard J. Firestone, The United Nations under U Thant, 1961-1971 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001).

Abdul Sattar, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy 1947-2005 (Karachi: Oxford UP, 2007).

Arun Kumar Singh, UN Security Council and Indo-Pak conflicts (Delhi: Capital Publishing House, 1992).

Robert G. Wirsing, India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute: on regional conflict and its resolution (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994).


Middle East

UN Emergency Force II: Arab-Israeli Conflict/Lebanon

Michael K. Carroll, Pearson's peacekeepers: Canada and the United Nations Emergency Force, 1956-67 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2009).

Emmanuel A. Erskine, Mission with UNIFIL: an African soldier’s reflections (London: Hurst, 1989).

Commandant Dan Harvey, Peacekeepers: Irish soldiers in the Lebanon (Dublin: Merlin Publishing, 2001).

Marianne Heiberg, Peacekeepers and local populations: some comments on UNIFIL (Oslo: Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, 1988).

Nand Lal, From collective security to peacekeeping: a study of India's contribution to the United Nations Emergency Force, 1956-67 (Calcutta: Minerva Associates, 1975).

Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin (eds.), The Israel-Arab reader: a documentary history of the Middle East conflict (New York: Penguin Books, 1995).

M. Abdel-Latif Zeidan, The United Nations Emergency Force 1956-1967 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1976).

Elihu Lauterpacht (compiler), The United Nations Emergency Force; basic documents (New York, Praeger, 1960).

David Lea, A survey of Arab-Israeli relations, 1947-2001 (London: Europa, 2002).

Anthony McDermoot & Kjell Skjelsaek (eds.), A thankless task: the role of UNIFIL in Southern Lebanon (Oslo: Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt, 1988).

Henry McDonald, Irishbatt: the story of Ireland’s blue berets in the Lebanon (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1993).

A.G. Mezerik (ed.), The United Nations emergency force (UNEF): precedents, creation, evolution (New York: International Review Service, 1957).

Brendan O’Shea (ed.), In the service of peace: memories of Lebanon from the pages of A Cosantóir (Cork: Mercier Press, 2001).

Indar Rikhve, The Sinai Blunder: withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Force leading to the Six Day War, June 1967 (New Delhi: Oxford & IBH, 1978).

Gabriella Rosner, The United Nations Emergency Force (New York, Columbia University Press, 1963).

Bjørn Skogmo, UNIFIL: international peacekeeping in Lebanon, 1978-1988 (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1989).

Nils Sköld, United Nations peacekeeping after the Suez War: UNEF I, the Swedish involvement (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996).

UN, United Nations Emergency Force: the first six months (New York: United Nations Office of Public Information, 1974).

Ron de Vos, Patrol to the north border of Israel: Lebanon through a UN soldier’s eyes (Valkenburg aan de Geul: Lemmens, 2007).

W. Van der Wolf and C. Tofan (eds.), The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2010).

Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)

James H. Allan, Peacekeeping: outspoken observations by a field officer (Westport: Praeger, 1996).

David M. Malone, The international struggle over Iraq: politics in the UN Security Council, 1980-2005. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)

Ian Johnstone, Aftermath of the Gulf War: an assessment of UN action (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1994).

Hans Koechler (ed.), The Iraq crisis and the United Nations: power politics vs. the international rule of law (Vienna: International Progress Organization, 2004).

Paul Taylor and AJR Groom, The United Nations and the Gulf War, 1990-1991: back to the future? (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1992).

Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM)

Peter Hinchcliffe, John T. Ducker and Maria Holt, Without Glory in Arabia: the British Retreat from Aden (New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006).



UN Transition Assistance Group in present-day Namibia (UNTAG)

Cedric Thornberry, The UNTAG experience in Namibia: first phase (Braamfontein, South Africa: South African Institute of International Affairs, 1990).

Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)

Stephen Chan and Moisés Venâncio, War and peace in Mozambique (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

UN and government of Mozambique, The Emergency situation in Mozambique: priority requirements for the period 1990-1991 (New York: United Nations, 1990).

Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)

Abiodun Alao, The burden of collective goodwill: the international involvement in the Liberian Civil War (Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate, 1998).

Abiodun Alao, John Mackinlay, and Funmi Olonisakin, Peacekeepers, politicians, and warlords: the Liberian peace process (New York: United Nations University Press, 1999).

Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)

Chima Ekeator, Battalion 7: a compelling story about the road to peace in Sierra Leone (Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited, 2007).

Mark Malan et al,. Sierra Leone: building the road to recovery (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2003).

Mark Malan, Phenvo Rakate, and Angela McIntyre, Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: UNAMSIL hits the home straight (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2002).

Funmi Olonisakin, Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: the story of UNAMSIL (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008).

J. Peter Pham, The Sierra Leonean tragedy: history and global dimensions (New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2006).

Operation in Congo (ONUC)

Georges Abi-Saab, The United Nations operation in the Congo, 1960-1964 (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1978).

Neil Briscoe, Britain and UN peacekeeping, 1948-1967 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Dietrich Franke, ONUC in Katanga - a model of self-defense or enforcement? (Harvard Law School Thesis, Cambridge: Harvard Law School, April 1970).

Peter B. Heller, The United Nations under Dag Hammarskjöld, 1953-1961 (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001).

John Kent, America, the UN and Decolonisation Cold War Conflict in the Congo (London; New York: Routledge, 2010).

Ernset W. Lefever, Uncertain mandate: politics of the UN Congo Operation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1967).

George Martelli, Experiment in world government: an account of the United Nations operation in the Congo, 1960-1964 (London: Johnson Publications, 1966).

Lise Namika, Battleground Africa: Cold War in the Congo 1960-1965 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2013).

Edgar O'Balance, The Congo-Zaire experience, 1960-98 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000).

Alanna O’Malley, “Ghana, India, and the Transnational Dynamics of the Congo Crisis at the United Nations, 1960-1,” The International History Review(2015).

Kevin A. Spooner, Canada, the Congo Crisis, and UN Peacekeeping, 1960-1964 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2009).

UN, United Nations operation in the Congo: report on civilian operations in 1963 (New York: United Nations, 1964).

Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)

African Rights, Left to die at ETO and Nyanza: the stories of Rwandese civilians abandoned by UN troops on 11 April 1994 (London: African Rights, 2001).

John A. Berry and Carol Pott Berry (eds.), Genocide in Rwanda: a collective memory (Washington: Howard University Press, 1999).

Liz Hughes, UNV programme, UNAMIR, Rwanda, June 1995 (Rwanda: UNAMIR, 1995).

Scott R. Feil, Preventing genocide: how the early use of force might have succeeded in Rwanda (Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1998).

Adam Jones, “Gender and Genocide in Rwanda,” Journal of Genocide Research 4.1 (2002), 65-94.

Joshua James Kassner, Rwanda and the Moral Obligation of Humanitarian Intervention (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013).
See review in H-Diplo.

Shaharyar M. Khan, The shallow graves of Rwanda (New York: IB Tauris Publishers, 2000).

Johan Pottier, Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the late Twentieth Century (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Alan J. Kuperman, The limits of humanitarian intervention: genocide in Rwanda (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2001).

Henry Kwami Anyidoho, Guns over Kigali: the Rwandese Civil War, 1994 (Accra: Woeli Publishing Services, 1997).

Scott Strauss, “How Many Perpetrators were There in the Rwandan Genocide? An Estimate,” Journal of Genocide Research 6.1 (2004), 85-98.

Operation in Burundi ONUB

Henri Boshoff, Waldemary Very, and George Rautenbach, The Burundi peace process: from civil war to conditional peace (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2010).


Eastern Europe

Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)

UN, The United Nations and the situation in Georgia (UN Department of Public Information, 1995).
Protection Force in former Yugoslavia (UNPROFOR)

Wolfgang Biermann and Martin Vadset (eds.), UN peacekeeping in trouble: lessons learned from the former Yugoslavia (Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 1998).

Richard Caplan, Post-mortem on UNPROFOR (London: Brassey’s for the Centre for Defence Studies, 1996).

Åge Eknes, Blue helmets in a blown mission: UNPROFOR in former Yugoslavia (Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1993).

Frederick H. Fleitz Jr., Peacekeeping fiascoes of the 1990s: causes, solutions, and US interests (Westport: Praeger, 2002).

Ramesh Thakur and Albrecht Schnabel (eds.), United Nations peacekeeping operations: ad hoc missions, permanent engagements (New York: United Nations University Press, 2001).

Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO)

Dawn M. Hewitt, From Ottawa to Sarajevo: Canadian peacekeepers in the Balkans (Kingston, Ontario: Queen’s University, 1998).

James D. Smith, Canada in Croatia: peacekeeping and UN reform- the view from the ground (Surrey: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, 1995).

Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

Amnesty International Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Kosovo), Setting the standard: UNMIK and KFOR's response to the violence in Mitrovica (London: International Secretariat, 2000).

Tonny Brems Knudsen and Carsten Bagge Lausten (eds.), Kosovo between war and peace: nationalism, peacebuilding and international trusteeship (London: Routledge, 2006).

Peter Siani-Davies (ed.), International intervention in the Balkans since 1995 (London: Routledge, 2003).

W. Van der Wolf (ed.), The Kosovo crisis: facts, figures, and documents (Nijmegen: Global Law Association, 1999).


Latin American and the Caribbean

Mission of the Representative of the SG in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP)

Max Harrelson, Fires all around the horizon: the UN’s uphill battle to preserve the peace (New York: Praeger, 1989).

Indar Jit Rikhye, Trumpets and tumults: the memoirs of a peacekeeper (Delhi: Manohar, 2002).

Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)

John T. Fishel and Andres Saenz (eds.), Capacity building for peacekeeping: the case of Haiti (Washington: National Defense UP, 2007).

Eduardo Aldunate Herman, Backpacks full of hope: the UN mission in Haiti (Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Innovation, 2010).

Ralph Pezzullo, Plunging into Haiti: Clinton, Aristide, and the defeat of diplomacy (Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2006).

Yasmine Shamsic and Andrew S. Thompson (eds.), Haiti: hope for a fragile state (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2006).

Observer Group in Central America –Nicaragua (ONUCA)

Jack Child, The Central American peace process, 1983-1991: sheathing swords, building confidence (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1992).

Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)

Susanne Jonas, Of centaurs and doves: Guatemala’s peace process (Boulder: Westview Press, 2000).

UN, Status of the commitments of the peace agreements relating to the armed forces (Guatemala City: MINUGUA, 2002).

UN, The Guatemala peace agreements (New York: United Nations, 1998).




UN Peacekeeping Main Website

The main site for United Nations peacekeeping, this site includes primers for all present and pass peacekeeping operations, including newsbreaks for operations involving UN peacekeepers. The site is absolutely essential for researchers trying to understand the political and military background of all UN operations.

The Brahimi Report

The famous Brahimi Report, or its official name “Report of the panel on United Nations Peace Operations,” was an October 2000 report that criticized the conduct of UN peacekeeping operations. Identifying the problems related to the organization and deployment of UN forces, the Brahimi Report provided a series of recommendations for modernizing and streamlining UN operations. This report, as a result, has become a critical part in the debate over how to bring peacekeeping into the 21st century.

The United Nations and Peacekeeping in Africa

An article from 1999 on UN peacekeeping in Africa provides an analysis of the success or failure of peacekeeping operations in countries such as Mozambique, Rwanda, and Namibia. This report identifies the ways operations succeeded in countries such as Mozambique and critiques the UN for its failures in Somalia and Rwanda. The paper ends by providing four conditions where operations may succeed.

Brookings Institution- Peacekeeping

This sites serves as an aggregator of all articles and papers on peacekeeping written by analysts at the Brookings Institution, a foreign relations think tank. The site’s articles include treatises on South Sudan, West Africa, the Middle East, and other regions. This site provides an excellent introduction to what think tanks may argue with regard to peacekeeping,

United Nations Association of Canada Page on Peacekeeping

This site, as part of the United Nations Association of Canada, provides an overview of Canada’s participation in peacekeeping operations. The site includes a series of fact sheets on Canadian participation and, interestingly, a list of myths and facts about Canadian involvement (e.g. whether Canada leads the world in peacekeeping operations).

Foreign Policy Briefing by Samantha Power on Peacekeeping

This 2009 speech by Samantha Power, Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Multilateral Affairs at the Department of State, details a meeting between President Obama and other world leaders over American contributions to peacekeeping operations. Ms. Power then answered a few questions about (primarily African) peacekeeping operations and the role of the United States in future peacekeeping.

Citizens for Global Solutions Site on Peacekeeping

Citizens for Global Solutions is a think tank committed to furthering an internationalist approach to American foreign policy: to that end, they include a site on their website very supportive of UN peacekeeping. The site lists a number of articles written by CGS on the United Nations and a number of links to other sites, including videos from UN TV on peacekeeping.

Time for a New UN Peacekeeping Organization

This 2007 from the right-wing American think tank the Heritage Foundation argues that the UN should create an independent agency for peacekeeping. The report pinpoints areas the author believes has impeded effective UN action, such as bureaucratic inertia and corruption, and outlines a recommended agency that could effectively undertake peacekeeping operations.

United States Institute of Peace Pre-9/11 Peacekeeping in Africa Report

This 2001 report from the US Institute of Peace comes on the heels of the Brahimi Report. The report identifies a lack of political will as the greatest impediment for continued American participation in peacekeeping operations.

UN Volunteers Overview of Peacekeeping

United Nations Volunteers is a support program of volunteers who provide aid to the DPKO and the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) in UN peacekeeping operations. While this is primarily geared towards recruiting volunteers (though if one is interested in supporting UN peacekeeping operations, this would be a place to check out), this website also contains stories of past UN volunteers and the requirements to support the mission.

UN Conduct and Discipline Unit- unit overseeing any sexual misconduct amongst UN peacekeeping personnel

The United Nations Conduct and Discipline Unit is an organization charged with maintaining discipline and stamping out sexual abuse amongst UN peacekeepers. The site provides a host of resources related to investigations of sexual abuse and the current UN codes of conduct. This would serve as a great primary source for individuals looking at the numerous aspects of UN peacekeeping besides just undertaking a mission.

To protect sovereignty, or to protect lives?- The Economist

This article from the Economist in 2008 details the debate between the “right to protect” within the context of the 2008 crisis over a cyclone hitting Burma. The article summarizes the debate over R2P from the 1990s until 2008 and cleanly lays out the sides to the issue (R2P vs. state sovereignty). A good introduction to the issue.

Peacekeeping Web Links from USIP (from 2004)

The United States Institute of Peace in 2004 collected a series of weblinks complementing their own reports on US peacekeeping. While some of the resources are dated, the site includes a number of links to peacekeeping operations, including those of NATO and the United States. As this bibliography focuses on the United Nations only, this site would be a great gateway to analyze

International Humanitarian Law (from the Red Cross)

The Red Cross provides a brief, two-page PDF fact sheet outlining humanitarian law on this site. The document provides a concise yet informative primer on the many aspects of international law related to conflicts, its bases, and how it might be implemented by the United Nations. A great introduction for individuals who are trying to look for something more reliable than a “Wikipedia” definition.

The Responsibility to Protect Commission

This website catalogues all of the information, the lead-up to, and the actual report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty that in 2001 provided the world with the idea of the “Responsibility to Protect.” An excellent primary resource, this website gives researchers a great way to understand the background and the defining document of the debate over the R2P.

Responsibility to Protect Coalition

The Responsibility to Protect Coalition was a non-profit organization that sought to advance the cause of R2P within public opinion. The site does not appear to have been updated since at least 2009 and the organization appears to have not sponsored any major activities since 2007. However, the website itself includes a neat little chronology of R2P activities throughout the first years after the ICISS’s publication.

Two Concepts of Sovereignty by Kofi Annan - interview with the Economist

Kofi Annan discusses the evolution of international humanitarian intervention within the context of human rights crises during the 1990s. By looking at the debate over international intervention in Kosovo and the uproar following the international community’s failure to intervene in Rwanda, Annan traces the problems with the doctrine yet outlines his support for it as well. A great way to understand the debate prior to 2001 over humanitarian intervention.

Ethics of Armed Humanitarian Intervention

This publication from 2002 by the United States Institute of Peace discusses the ethical implications of humanitarian intervention. The author conducts a philosophical review of the conditions that one may apply to intervention to determine its ethical viability. This document would serve as an example of how one may look at the philosophical/moral underpinnings of arguments in support (or against) R2P.

Memo from the UN on Peacekeeping- In Peacekeeping, a Muddling of the Mission

This article presents a series of critiques of UN peacekeeping missions, reporting on the failures of peacekeeping operations and the overzealousness of the UN to launch peacekeeping operations that stretch the organization’s meager resources. The article, from 2009 in the New York Times, provides a glimpse at the continuing debate for peacekeeping reform related to the lack of focus and clarity in UN peacekeeping missions.

United Nations Peacekeeping Training Courses

The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) is an organization that provides online lessons in peacekeeping, related to conflict analysis and preparedness for peacekeepers. While the classes are limited in size (and, although I could not find this information, presumably cost money to attend), these programs would provide a great way for researchers to probe how some UN peacekeepers prepare for their assignments. As well, there are a number of videos available about these topics freely on the site.

Small Wars Journal - on UN Peacekeeping

The Small Wars Journal, an online blog/journal chronicling low-level conflicts throughout the world, has a site, which collects various publications from academics and government officials on peacekeeping.

NY Times on Peacekeeping

This site from the New York Times includes all the articles hitherto written on peacekeeping. This source solves as a great resource for individuals trying to get the latest information on the conduct, and debate over, UN peacekeeping.

UN Peacekeeping- Better World Campaign

A part of the Better World campaign, it advocates for a stronger UN peacekeeping force and for greater American involvement. Researchers may want to use this site as it includes a lengthy and detailed resources page with links to videos and websites dedicated to peacekeeping.

Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping- Reports

The Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping is a non-profit in Washington, DC comprised of other NGOs with the purpose of serving as a working group on UN peacekeeping reform. Their publications page collects up-to-date documents on how to reform the UN both institutionally and to change the UN’s mission worldwide.

United Nations Documentation: Research Guide

This research guide of United Nations Peacekeeping documents includes guides to resolutions, statements, meeting records, etc. for the United Nations. This research guide will help you find the types of documents one may look for and where to find them, though the guide does not provide instructions to finding online sources for many of these documents.


Displacement Activity
This blog, run by Jared Manasek, focuses on the history and historiography of forced migration, humanitarianism, and human rights. It provides information on calls for papers, recently published articles, fellowships, and is aimed at those interested in refugee and humanitarian activity.

Archives Watch collects materials on refugee studies and human rights in the archive. It also posts calls for papers and contributions to special issues and edited volumes. It is run by Paul Dudman, the archivist in charge of the Refugee Council Archive held at the University of East London.

Refugee Research Network (RRN) connects Canadian and international research on refugees and forced migration with policy and practice.