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 Women and Children


Arat, Zehra F. Kabasakal. “Feminisms, Women’s Rights, and the UN: Would Achieving Gender Equality Empower Women?” American Political Science Review 109, no. 4 (November 2015): 674–89.

Baár, Monika. "Singing and Painting Global Awareness: International Years and Human Rights at the United Nations." In International Organizations and the Media in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Exorbitant Expectations, by Jonas Brendebach, Martin Herzer and Heidi J.S. Tworek, 182-203. London: Routledge, 2018.

Bakaki, Zorzeta, and Kaisa Hinkkainen. “Do Child Soldiers Influence UN Peacekeeping?” International Peacekeeping 23, no. 4 (August 2016): 540–67.

Baldez, Lisa. Defying Convention: US Resistance to the U.N. Treaty on Women's Rights. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Basu, Amrita and Elizabeth McGrory. The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

Basu, Soumita. “Gender as National Interest at the UN Security Council.” International Affairs 92, no. 2 (March 2016): 255–73.

Beber, Bernd, Michael J. Gilligan, Jenny Guardado and Sabrina Karim. “Peacekeeping, Compliance with International Norms, and Transactional Sex in Monrovia, Liberia.” International Organization 71, no. 1 (January 2017): 1–30.

Berger, Susan J. “The Children’s Advocate.” American Educational History Journal 33, no. 2 (Fall 2006): 137–42.

Black, Allida. "'Are Women 'Human'? The U.N. and the Struggle to Recognize Women's Rights as Human Rights." In The Human Rights Revolution: An International History, edited by Akira Iriye, Petra Goedde, and William I. Hitchcock, 133-55. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Chen, Martha, James Heintz, Renana Jhabvala, Francie Lund, and Joann Vanek. Women, Work and Poverty. New York: UNIFEM, 2005.

Chowdhry, Geeta, and Mark Beeman. “Challenging Child Labor: Transnational Activism and India’s Carpet Industry.” Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 575 (May 2001): 158-76.

Cold, Wade M. “Government Respect for Gendered Rights: The Effect of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on Women’s Rights Outcomes, 1981-2004.” International Studies Quarterly 57, no. 2 (June 2013): 233–49.

Dávila, Pauli, Luis M. Naya, and Jon Altuna. “The Representation of Childhood in the Discourse on the Rights of the Child in the Twentieth Century.” History of Education & Children’s Literature 11, no. 1 (January 2016): 153–72.

de Haan, Francisca. Women's Activism: Global Perspectives from the 1890s to the Present. London: Routledge, 2012.

Dolgopol, Ustina. “Women and Peace Building: What We Can Learn from the Arusha Peace Agreement.” Australian Feminist Studies 21, no. 50 (July 2006): 257–73.

Donert, Celia. "Women's Rights in Cold War Europe: Disentangling Feminist Histories." Past & Present no. 219 (2013): 178-200.

Fass, Paula S. “A Historical Context for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 633, no. 1 (January 2011): 17–29.

Ferree, Myra Marx and Aili Mari Tripp. Global Feminism: Transnational Women's Activism, Organizing, and Human Rights. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Fraser, Arvonne S. "Becoming Human: The Origins and Development of Women's Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly 21, no. 4 (1999): 853-906.

Fraser, Arvonne S. and Irene Tinker. Developing Power: How Women Transformed International Development. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 2004.

Freedman, Jane. “Protecting Women Asylum Seekers and Refugees: From International Norms to National Protection?” International Migration 48, no. 1 (February 2010): 175–98.

Friedman, Elisabeth Jay. “Gendering the Agenda: The Impact of the Transnational Women’s Rights Movement at the UN Conferences of the 1990s.” Women’s Studies International Forum 26, no. 4 (July 2003): 313-322.

Gaer, Felice. “Women, International Law and International Institutions: The Case of the United Nations.” Women’s Studies International Forum 32, no. 1 (January 2009): 60–66.

Garner, Karen. Shaping a Global Women's Agenda: Women's NGOs and Global Governance, 1925-85. Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2010.

Gillespie, James A. “International Organizations and the Problem of Child Health, 1945-1960.” Dynamis 23 (January 2003): 115–42.

Grimshaw, Patricia, Katie Holmes, and Marilyn Lake. Women's Rights and Human Rights: International Historical Perspectives. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Haack, Kirsten. “Women, Organizational Crisis, and Access to Leadership in International Organizations.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 38, no. 2 (April 2017): 175–98.

Harcourt, Wendy. The Global Women's Rights Movement: Power Politics Around the United Nations and the World Social Forum. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 2006.

Holzscheiter, Anna. Children's Rights in International Politics: The Transformative Power of Discourse. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Jain, Devaki. Women, Development, and the UN: A Sixty-Year Quest for Equality and Justice. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Justino, Patricia, Rebecca Mitchell, and Catherine Müller. “Women and Peace Building: Local Perspectives on Opportunities and Barriers.” Development & Change 49, no. 4 (July 2018): 911–29.

Karame, Kari H. “Military Women in Peace Operations: Experiences of the Norwegian Battalion in UNIFIL 1978-98.” International Peacekeeping 8, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 85-97.

Kilgour, Maureen A. “The UN Global Compact and Substantive Equality for Women: Revealing a ‘Well Hidden’ Mandate.” Third World Quarterly 28, no. 4 (June 2007): 751–73.

Kreft, Anne-Kathrin. “The Gender Mainstreaming Gap: Security Council Resolution 1325 and UN Peacekeeping Mandates.” International Peacekeeping 24, no. 1 (February 2017): 132–58.

Laville, Helen. “‘Woolly, Half-Baked and Impractical’? British Responses to the Commission on the Status of Women and the Convention on the Political Rights of Women 1946–67.” Twentieth Century British History 23, no. 4 (December 2012): 473–95.

LeBlanc, Lawrence J. The Convention on the Rights of the Child: United Nations Lawmaking on Human Rights. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Lee, Micky. “UNESCO’s Conceptualization of Women and Telecommunications 1970-2000.” Gazette: International Journal for Communication Studies 66, no. 6 (December 2004): 533–52.

Limoncelli, Stephanie A. The Politics of Trafficking: The First International Movement to Combat the Sexual Exploitation of Women. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2010.

Machel, Graça, Sebastião Salgado, and UNICEF. The Impact of War on Children: A Review of Progress since the 1996 United Nations Report on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2001.

Maurás, Marta. “Public Policies and Child Rights: Entering the Third Decade of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 633, no. 1 (January 2011): 52–65.

Mazurana, Dyan E., Angela Raven-Roberts, and Jane L. Parpart. Gender, Conflict, and Peacekeeping. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Merry, Sally Engle. Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Metzger, Barbara. "Towards an International Human Rights Regime during the Inter-War Years: The League of Nations' Combat of Traffic in Women and Children." In Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire, and Transnationalism,edited by Kevin Grant, Philippa Levine, and Frank Trentmann, 54-79. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Meyer, Mary K. and Elisabeth Prügl. Gender Politics in Global Governance. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.

Midtgaard, Kristine. “Bodil Begtrup and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Individual Agency, Transnationalism and Intergovernmentalism in Early UN Human Rights.” Scandinavian Journal of History 36, no. 4 (December 2011): 479–99.

Moody, Zoe. “Transnational Treaties on Children’s Rights: Norm Building and Circulation in the Twentieth Century.” Paedagogica Historica 50, no. 1/2 (February 2014): 151–64.

Morris, Jennifer. “UNICEF, Syphilis and the State: Negotiating Female Citizenship in the Post-Second World War World.” Women’s History Review 19, no. 4 (September 2010): 631–50.
Murphy, Ray. “An Assessment of UN Efforts to Address Sexual Misconduct by Peacekeeping Personnel.” International Peacekeeping 13, no. 4 (December 2006): 531–46.

Nyseth Brehm, Hollie, and Elizabeth Heger Boyle. “The Global Adoption of National Policies Protecting Children from Violent Discipline in Schools and Homes, 1950–2011.” Law & Society Review 52, no. 1 (March 2018): 206–33.

Olcott, Jocelyn. "Globalizing Sisterhood: International Women’s Year and the Politics of Representation." In The Shock of the Global: The 1970s in Perspective, edited by Niall Ferguson, Charles S. Maier, Erez Manela, and Daniel J. Sargent, 281-293. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Olcott, Jocelyn. “Cold War Conflicts and Cheap Cabaret: Sexual Politics at the 1975 United Nations International Women’s Year Conference.” Gender & History 22, no. 3 (November 2010): 733–54.

Olcott, Jocelyn. “Media Strategies for the 1975 International Women’s Year.” Journal of Women’s History 24, no. 4 (Winter 2012): 24–48.

Olcott, Jocelyn. International Women's Year: The Greatest Consciousness-Raising Event in History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Olsson, Louise. “Gender Mainstreaming in Practice: The United Nations Transitional Assistance Group in Namibia.” International Peacekeeping 8, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 97-111.

Pietilä, Hilkka and Jeanne Vickers. Making Women Matter: The Role of the United Nations. London: Zed Books, 1990.

Pietilä, Hilkka. The Unfinished Story of Women and the United Nations. Geneva: UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service, 2007.

Robinson, Nova. “Arab Internationalism and Gender: Perspectives from the Third Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, 1949.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 48, no. 3 (August 2016): 578–83.

Rupp, Leila J. Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Russo, Giusi. “Contested Practices, Human Rights, and Colonial Bodies in Pain: The UN’s Gender Politics in Africa, 1940s–1960s.” Gender & History 30, no. 1 (March 2018): 196–213.

Skard, Torild. "Getting our History Right: How were the Equal Rights of Women and Men Included in the Charter of the United Nations?" Forum for Development Studies 35, no. 1 (2008): 37-60.

Skran, Claudena. “UNHCR’s Gender Policy for Refugees and Returnees in Sierra Leone.” African & Asian Studies 14, no. 1/2 (March 27, 2015): 108–33.

Sluga, Glenda. "National Sovereignty and Female Equality: Gender, Peacemaking, and the New World Orders of 1919 and 1945." In Frieden, Gewalt, Geschlecht: Friedens- und Konfliktforschung als Geschlechterforschung, edited by Jennifer A. Davy, Karen Hagemann, and Ute Kätzel, 166-83. Essen: Klartext, 2005.

Sluga, Glenda. “Women, Feminisms and Twentieth-Century Internationalisms.” In Internationalisms: A Twentieth-Century History, edited by Glenda Sluga and Patricia Clavin, 61–84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

UNICEF. 1946-2006: Sixty Years for Children. New York: UNICEF, 2006.

Walter, Lynn. Women's Rights: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Williams, James H., and William C. Cummings. “Education from the Bottom Up: UNICEF’s Education Programme in Somalia.” International Peacekeeping 22, no. 4 (August 2015): 419–34.

Winslow, Anne. Women, Politics, and the United Nations. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Wotipka, Christine Min, Brenda Jarillo Rabling, Minako Sugawara, and Pumsaran Tongliemnak. “The Worldwide Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Education, 1985-2010.” American Journal of Education 123, no. 2 (February 2017): 307-340

Zinsser, Judith P. "From Mexico to Copenhagen to Nairobi: The United Nations Decade for Women, 1975-1985." Journal of World History 13, no. 1 (2002): 139-168.



UN General Assembly resolution 63/311 on system-wide coherence

Supported the consolidation of four distinct parts of the UN system that focused exclusively on gender equality and women’s empowerment into a composite entity to be led by an Under-Secretary-General.


General Assembly Resolution 64/289

On 2 July 2010 the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted resolution 64/289, thus creating United Nations Women by merging the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW); the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW, established in 1976); the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues Advancement of Women (OSAGI, established in 1997), and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM, established in 1976).


Comprehensive proposal for the composite entity for gender Equality and the empowerment of women, by Secretary General

The report proposes that the composite entity be a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly and report to the General Assembly through the Economic and Social Council. The Commission on the Status of Women will play a crucial role in guiding its work and an Executive Board will oversee its operational activities.


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW).

The “women’s bill of rights” is a cornerstone of all UN Women programmes. More than 185 countries are parties to the Convention.


Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (PFA). Adopted by governments at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, this document sets forth governments’ commitments to enhance women’s rights. Member states reaffirmed and strengthened the platform in 2000 during the global five-year review of progress, and pledged to accelerate its implementation during the 10-year review in 2005 and the 15-year review in 2010.


UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) Recognized that war impacts women differently, and reaffirmed the need to increase women’s role in decision-making with regard to conflict prevention and resolution.

The UN Security Council subsequently adopted four additional resolutions on women, peace and security: 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009) and 1960 (2010).


Evaluation Reports

Evaluation Report: UNIFEM’s Work on Gender-Responsive Budgeting (2010). The evaluation, split into three sets of reports, provides critical lessons on what conditions and mechanisms enable or hinder UNIFEM’s work in increasing gender equality in budget processes and practices. It also analyses UNIFEM’s overall approach to gender-responsive budget programming.


Evaluation Report: United Nations Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate Violence against Women (2010). This evaluation looks into the implementation and overall effectiveness of the 2005-2008 United Nations Trust Fund Strategy in advancing the fund’s work on ending violence against women at country levels.


Evaluation Report: UNIFEM’s Partnerships with Regional Organizations to Advance Gender Equality (2010). This report assesses UNIFEM’s partnerships with regional organizations in order to affect progress towards gender equality at regional and national levels. It reviews existing partnerships and discusses areas for development, and includes profiles of six partners and the work undertaken by the organizations to promote and enhance gender equality.


Evaluation Report of the UNIFEM Programme Facilitating CEDAW Implementation in Southeast Asia (CEDAW SEAP) (2009). It assesses the effectiveness, relevance and sustainability of the programme, and provides recommendations on how it can be further implemented to effectively build on partnerships, experiences and achievements, provide support for ongoing learning and enhance the use of results-based management.


The United Nations Trust Fund to End Violence Against Women

The Annual Reports of the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women (UN Trust Fund) highlight innovative programmes and practices in the field of ending violence against women and girls.


Blog on Women, Internationalism, and Gender in History
Blog by major scholars on women, internationalism, and gender in history.


IKNOW Politics
Co-sponsored by UN Women, the International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics is an extensive online workspace and advocacy platform where everyone from elected officials to students can access resources, use tools, participate in forums and get expert advice on women in political life.


Gender-Responsive Budgeting
The Gender-Responsive Budgeting web portal aims to facilitate the exchange of information between academics, practitioners, researchers and activists working on gender budget initiatives. It features articles, research papers and training tools, and offers resources in Arabic, French, Portuguese and Spanish.


Presupuesto y Género en América Latina y el Caribe
This Web portal dedicated to tracking gender-responsive budgeting in Latin America has data on projects and experts in the region, summaries of the most common gender budget analysis methodologies and a comprehensive bibliography of Spanish-language documents on the subject.


WomenWatch is a central gateway to information and resources on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women throughout the UN system. The website also provides information on the outcomes of, as well as efforts to incorporate gender perspectives into follow-up to global conferences.


Violence against Women

This fundamental violation of women’s rights remains widespread, affecting all countries. Women need strong laws, backed by implementation and services for protection and prevention.
Programme and Technical Assistance
Policy and Normative Support


Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls
A one-stop online centre that encourages and supports evidence-based programming to more efficiently and effectively design, implement, monitor and evaluate initiatives to prevent and respond to violence against women and girls. The website offers leading tools and evidence on what works, drawing on expert recommendations, policy and programme evaluations and assessments, and practitioners’ experiences from around the world.


Say NO – UNiTE to End Violence against Women
UN Women’s Say NO initiative is a global platform for advocacy and action, engaging participants from all walks of life to prevent and address violence against women and girls. It contributes towards the objectives of the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s campaign, UNiTE to End Violence against Women, through social mobilization.


Peace and Security

There is international recognition that women bear the brunt of modern conflicts, including where rape is a weapon of war. Specific threats to women must be identified and stopped, and women must be at the centre of peace talks and post-conflict reconstruction.
Programme and Technical Assistance
Research and Training


UN Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN Action)
UN Action unites the work of 13 UN entities with the goal of ending sexual violence in conflict. It is a concerted effort by the UN system to improve coordination and accountability, amplify programming and advocacy, and support national efforts to prevent sexual violence and respond effectively to the needs of survivors.


Leadership and Participation

Across all areas of life, whether in political bodies or corporate boardrooms, women have a limited say in the decisions that affect them. Quotas and other special measures open more space for women’s participation. New skills help women realize their full leadership potential.
Programme and Technical Assistance
Research and Training


Gender & HIV/AIDS Web Portal
GenderandAIDS.org aims to promote understanding, knowledge sharing and action on HIV and AIDS as a gender and human rights issue. This comprehensive web portal offers up-to-date information on the epidemic from a gender perspective, a full range of resources, personal stories and commentaries, and multimedia advocacy tools.


Economic Empowerment

Women lag far behind men in access to land, credit and decent jobs, even though a growing body of research shows that enhancing women’s economic options boosts national economies. Macroeconomic policies and policy-making can make the connections to gender equality. The multiple barriers that prevent women from seizing economic opportunities must be dropped.
Programme and Technical Assistance
Research and Training


Millennium Development Goals

The MDGs provide a basic roadmap for development. Gender equality is the third goal, but it is also integral to achieving all eight MDGs, from preventing the spread of HIV to sustaining the environment in the face of climate change.

Read more:
Climate Change

WFP: Focus on Women

Facts on women and poverty.

Women, Science, Technology

Pages on women and science and technology - with links to forums and other resources.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics: Gender-Sensitive Education Statistics and Indicators
This guide builds up awareness of gender-sensitive education statistics and indicators to effectively monitor gender disparities in education, 2002.

WHO: Gender, Women and Health Network

The Gender, Women and Health Network (GWHN) is composed of the WHO Department of Gender and Women's Health (GWH) and gender focal points and/or units located at Headquarters and in WHO's six Regional Offices.

WHO: Women's Health

Links to descriptions of activities, reports, news and events on this topic

Violence against Women
The website "Violence against Women" of the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women provides an overview of the issue, as well as statements and presentations.



Women, Internationalisms, and Gender, 1792 to the Present. This blog, run by a team of academics, focuses on creating blog discussions on themes surrounding women's international history.




Youtube Channel UN Women

Women on the Frontline TV Series
This new documentary series shines a light on violence against women and girls.



The Children and the Nations
A history of UNICEF, published in 1986.

The following books are available in PDF format.

Children First
A complementary work to 'The Children and the Nations', examining children's issues and UNICEF, published in 1996.

UNICEF For Beginners
(Christian Clark, 1996)

Released around the time of UNICEF's 50th Anniversary, 'UNICEF for Beginners' told the story of the organization's evolution—from provider of milk for the hungry children of postwar Europe to champion of children's rights in countries around the world.

Jim Grant: UNICEF Visionary
(UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2001)

James Grant was UNICEF’s Executive Director from 1980 to 1995. This book gives glimpses of his leadership and achievements during his period as Executive Director of UNICEF. Each piece is written by one of his close colleagues – one of those who was privileged to share in the heady excitement of the efforts and victories for children during those intense years.'

Challenges for Children and Women in the 1990s

In October 1990, UNICEF's Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office brought together a number of specialists to analyze child survival, protection and development data with a view to identifying new trends and issues emerging in the region.

Child Neglect in Rich Nations
(Sylvia Ann Hewlett, UNICEF, 1993)

Child neglect in rich nations describes how and why some of the wealthiest nations on earth have short-changed children. Poverty and abandonment are now commonplace experiences for children in the rich. Much of this book focuses on what to do: the techniques and strategies exist.

Helping Children Cope with the Stresses of War
A Manual for Parents and Teachers
(Mona Macksoud, UNICEF, 1993)

Based on methods and approaches that have been tested extensively in war-torn Lebanon, this manual will be welcomed by parents and teachers helping children cope with the stresses of war and other forms of systematic violence.

A History of UNICEF in Viet Nam
UNICEF Country Office

This book tells the history of UNICEF in Viet Nam from 1948 to 2005, through the testimonies of several generations of UNICEF professionals. The political neutrality of UNICEF and its aim to put children at the heart of social development built up trust, credibility and a very special relationship with the people of Vietnam.

Implementing the 20/20 Initiative
(A joint publication of UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank, 1997)

The 20/20 Initiative is a compact between developing and industrialized countries, calling for the allocation of, on average, 20 per cent of the budget in developing countries and 20 per cent of official development assistance (ODA) to basic social services.


The following Documents and Reports are in PDF format.

United Nations Resolutions establishing and guiding UNICEF
Six United Nations Resolutions (General Assembly or ECOSOC) establishing UNICEF and guiding its early work.
16 March 1947

The International Children’s Emergency Fund 
Article from US Department of State Bulletin: History to date, purposes, finances and administration of UNICEF.
John Charnow, 2 December 1948.

The Work of the United Nations' International Children's Emergency Fund
Statements to the General Assembly by the Honorable Eleanor Roosevelt, United States Delegation, and the Honorable Alan Watt, Australian Delegation. These statements drew to the attention of governments the necessity for prompt contributions to the Fund, 22 January 1951.

Final Report of UNICEF's First Executive Board Session
The Report addresses UNICEF's work, methods and funding over the period 11 December 1946-31 December 1950. UN ECOSOC, 25 March 1953.

Special Report of UNICEF’s Executive Board, March 1953
This Report was issued prior to the General Assembly's decision later that year to extend UNICEF’s mandate on a permanent basis. UN ECOSOC, September 1964.

Planning for the Needs of Children in the National Plans of Developing Countries
The issuance of this report marked a milestone in supporting the development of national policies for children in each country. Herman D. Stein, June 1966.

UNICEF – The United Nations’ Children’s Fund
Article from the Department of State Bulletin, describing the evolution of UNICEF policies and programmes. Blanche Bernstein,1978.

Alma-Ata 1978, Primary Health Care
Report of the International Conference on primary health care, held in Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978. Includes the Alma Ata Declaration, as well as the Background, Summary of Discussions, and the joint report of the Director-General of the World Health Organisation and the Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund. The groundbreaking Declaration linked a rights-based approach to health to a viable strategy for its achievement. WHO, January 1986.

The contribution of UNICEF to the peace process
The article summarizes the contributions of the organization to the realization of a vision of peace described as "not onlythe absence of war but the right to live and grow."
John Charnow, 27-29 October 1986.

Children First conference report
‘Children First’ is the report of the intergovernmental conference on South Asian children, held in 1986, which served as a model for future conferences on children including the World Summit for Children.
SAARC Conference in cooperation with UNICEF, 12 March 1988.

Declaration of Talloires
The Talloires Declaration (1988) on goals related to survival and health of children, was a contributing document for the goals eventually endorsed at the World Summit for Children.
The Task Force For Child Survival, 13 June 1988.

Memo: Strategies for Children for the 1990s
Memo from UNICEF Executive Director Jim Grant to senior managers, setting out a direction for developing strategies for children in the subsequent decade. This work led in part to the World Summit for Children. Included with the memo are 2 Executive Board resolutions, one on the need for a global strategy for the well-being of children, and the other urging governments to set long-term objectives for improving the situation of children.
Jim Grant.

UNICEF in Bellagio: A Memoir
By Dr. Herman Stein. The Bellagio Conference was a turning point in UNICEF's history, when it emerged as an empowered international agency functioning with growing independence from the other UN entities. The Bellagio Conference also brought child welfare issues into national policy agendas for the first time, critically influencing UNICEF's expanding mandate up until the present day. Includes introduction by former UNICEF Deputy Executive Director Kul Gautam.Date: 1946-1948

A letter from Maurice Pate, UNICEF's first Executive Director

First Call for Children: World Declaration and Plan of Action from the World Summit for Children
"This booklet contains the text of these historic documentsIn committing themselves to pursue these goals, the leaders of the world have agreed to be guided by the principle of a 'first call for children' -- a principle that the essential needs of children should be given high priority in the allocation of resources, in bad times as well as in good times, at national and international as well as at family levels."

World Summit discussion paper
"The following is a discussion paper on issues related to a proposed World Summit for Children, and reflects a consensus of ideas and conclusions derived from discussions within UNICEF and among Governments and other allies for children." 1 May 1989.

Decision to call a World Summit for Children
A memo from UNICEF Executive Director James Grant to UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar.

Schedule and Programme
The original World Summit schedule and programme of events. 16 July 1990.

Information Note for Participants
The Note addresses "issues regarding administrative and logistical arrangements pertinent to the participation of Heads of State or Government and their respective Delegations in the World Summit for Children." 16 July 1990.


Research Tools

Childinfo: Monitoring the Situation of Women and Children

Measures the situation of children and women and tracks progress through data collection and analysis. It maintains and updates global databases and promotes dissemination of evidence-based data for planning and advocacy. UNICEF is the lead United Nations (UN) agency responsible for the global monitoring of the child-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

The enhanced and interactive website is dedicated to maximize the use and impact of Innocenti’s research for the world’s most vulnerable children. Global thinkers and development specialists capture, analyze and disseminate critical research related to children.

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)

UNICEF assists countries in collecting and analyzing data in order to fill data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women through its international household survey initiative the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).

Knowledge Management

This is an unrivalled window into the Convention on the Rights of the Child; a simple navigational tool guides the user through the Convention and its supporting documentation.

Child Friendly Cities

Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities

This website provides a powerful tool for the exchange of information, data and networking among Child Friendly Cities (CFC) partners and others interested in the situation of the urban child.

Child Impact

This website links to initiatives underway across UNICEF and provides analytical tools on economic trends and policies, their impacts on children, and is a means to formulate timely and effective responses to crises, economic shocks and policy reform.

Childinfo: Monitoring the Situation of Women and Children

Measures the situation of children and women and tracks progress through data collection and analysis. It maintains and updates global databases and promotes dissemination of evidence-based data for planning and advocacy. UNICEF is the lead United Nations (UN) agency responsible for the global monitoring of the child-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)


The NewsMarket: UNICEF

UNICEF news video, and other available assets include stills and reference documents (press releases, fact sheets, publications and more). Crediting: The material is provided copyright free, but please credit UNICEF on-screen.

UNICEF Television Vodcast

UNICEF Television is a global news service focusing on the health, education, equality and protection of children. Our videos discuss current events from a unique perspective. Get the latest news and in-depth stories from correspondents (and children) from around the world.


A global radio service from UNICEF, focusing on the health, education, equality and protection of children. Featuring news and in-depth stories from around the world.

For a list of downloadable UNICEF Radio Reports.

For a list of downloadable UNICEF Radio Programmes.

International Children's Day of Broadcasting (ICDB)

ICDB, celebrated on the first Sunday of March, is a day when broadcasters around the world "Tune in to Kids".  They air quality programming for and about children. But most of all, they allow children to be part of the programming process, to talk about their hopes and dreams and share information with their peers. 

UNICEF’s History

The following multimedia website on UNICEF’s history was released for the organization’s 60th Anniversary. Each segment includes an illustrated timeline, posters and stamps, and video interviews about developments in the given period.

1946-1959 | 1960-1979 | 1980-1989 | 1990-1999 | 2000-2006

Rock-and-roll benefit concerts: Music to UNICEF’s ears

UNICEF Radio correspondent Blue Chevigny takes a musical trip down memory lane to the 1970s benefit concerts that helped shape the history of both UNICEF and rock and roll. Listen

Top 10 Cartoons for Children’s Rights

Cartoons for Children’s Rights are a UNICEF broadcast initiative that aims to inform people around the world about children’s rights.

Take a virtual tour of UNICEF’s history

UNICEF Photography

YouTube Channel



UNICEF United Kingdom


The new IRC website is an interactive global hub for sharing strategic ideas. IRC will extend the weight of its research by exploiting visual and social media, and online interactivity. See how our website can help you to examine and participate in the world's continuing progress for children.