Balbi, Gabriele, Simone Fari, Giuseppe Richeri, and Spartaco Calvo. Network Neutrality: Switzerland’s Role in the Genesis of the Telegraph Union, 1855-1875. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014.
Beyersdorf, Frank. "Freedom of Communication: Visions and Realities of Postwar Telecommunication Orders in the 1940s." Journal of Policy History 27, no. 3 (2015): 492-520.
Codding, George A. and Anthony M. Rutkowski. The International Telecommunication Union in a Changing World. Dedham, MA: Artech House, 1982.
Codding, George A. The International Telecommunication Union: An Experiment in International Cooperation. New York: Arno Press, 1972.
Doran, Janis. Middle Powers and Technical Multilateralism: The International Telecommunication Union. Ottawa: North-South Institute, 1989.
Fari, Simone, Gabriele Balbi, and Giuseppe Richeri. The Formative Years of the Telegraph Union. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015.
Henrich-Franke, Christian, and Léonard Laborie. "European Union for and by Communication Networks: Continuities and Discontinuities during the Second World War."Comparativ: Leipziger Beiträge zur Universalgeschichte und vergleichenden Gesellschaftsforschung 28, no. 1 (January 2018): 82–100.
Laborie, Léonard. "Fragile Links, Frozen Identities: The Governance of Telecommunication Networks and Europe (1944-53)." History and Technology 27, no. 3 (2011): 311-330.
Löhr, Isabella, and Roland Wenzlhumer. "Institutionalised Co-operation on International Communication: The International Administrative Unions as a Means of Governing Globalisation Processes." In The Nation State and Beyond Governing Globalization Processes in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, edited by Isabella Löhr, 65-89. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2013.
Lyall, Francis. International Communications: The International Telecommunication Union and the Universal Postal Union. Burlington, Vt: Ashgate, 2011.
Mueller, Simone. "Beyond the Means of 99 Percent of the Population: Business Interests, State Intervention, and Submarine Telegraphy." Journal of Policy History 27, no. 3 (2015): 439-464.
Renaud, Jean-Luc. The Changing Dynamics of the International Telecommunication Union: An Historical Analysis of Development Assistance. PhD diss., Michigan State University, 1986.
Richardson, Alan J. "The Cost of a Telegram: Accounting and the Evolution of International Regulation of the Telegraph." Accounting History 20, no. 4 (2015): 405-429.
Savage, James G. The Politics of International Telecommunications Regulation. Boulder: Westview Press, 1989.
Schuster, Dusan B. "International Telecommunication Union - 150 Years of History: Adaptation to Change and the Opportunity for Reform." IEEE Communications Magazine 53, no. 6 (2015): 10-15.
Schwoch, James. "Cold War Telecommunications Strategy and the Question of German Television." Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 21, no. 2 (June 2001): 109–21.
Slotten, Hugh Richard. "The International Telecommunications Union, Space Radio Communications, and U.S. Cold War Diplomacy, 1957–1963." Diplomatic History 37, no. 2 (2013): 313-371.
The UPU fulfills an advisory, mediating and liaison role, and provides technical assistance where needed. It sets the rules for international mail exchanges and makes recommendations to stimulate growth in mail, parcel and financial services volumes and improve quality of service for customers.
Universal Postal Union - Secondary Sources
Codding, George A. The Universal Postal Union: Coordinator of the International Mails. New York: New York University Press, 1964.
Cotreau, James D. Historical Development of the Universal Postal Union and the Question of Membership. PhD diss., Université de Fribourg, 1974.
Hoke, Henry Reed. The First Book of International Mail: The Story of the Universal Postal Union. New York: F. Watts, 1963.
Howland, D. "Japan and the Universal Postal Union: An Alternative Internationalism in the 19th Century." Social Science Japan Journal 17, no. 1 (2014): 23-39.
John, Richard R. "Projecting Power Overseas: U.S. Postal Policy and International Standard-Setting at the 1863 Paris Postal Conference." Journal of Policy History 27, no. 3 (2015): 416-438.
John, Richard R. "The Public Image of the Universal Postal Union in the Anglophone World, 1874–1949." In International Organizations and the Media in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Exorbitant Expectations, edited by Jonas Brendebach, Martin Herzer, Heidi J.S. Tworek, 38-69. London: Routledge, 2018.
Lampe, Markus, and Florian Ploeckl. "Spanning the Globe: The Rise of Global Communications Systems and the First Globalisation." Australian Economic History Review 54, no. 3 (November 2014): 242–61.
Laborie, Léonard. "Global Commerce in Small Boxes: Parcel Post, 1878–1913." Journal of Global History 10, no. 2 (2015): 235-258.
Lyall, Francis. International Communications: The International Telecommunication Union and the Universal Postal Union. Burlington, Vt: Ashgate, 2011.
Buergenthal, Thomas. Law-Making in the International Civil Aviation Organization. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1969.
Finger, Seymour Maxwell. "Security of International Civil Aviation: The Role of ICAO." Terrorism 6, no. 4 (December 1983): 519–27.
Fitzgerald, Gerald F. "The Development of the Authentic Trilingual Text of the Convention on International Civil Aviation." American Journal of International Law 64, no. 2 (April 1970): 364–71.
Lindemann, Björn Alexander. "Case Study 4: The United Nations (UN) and Its Specialized Agencies." In Cross-Strait Relations and International Organizations: Taiwan's Participation in IGOs in the Context of Its Relationship with China, edited by Björn A. Lindemann, 253-86. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2014.
MacKenzie, David Clark. ICAO: A History of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Mackenzie, David. "'An 'Ambitious Dream': The Chicago Conference and the Quest for Multilateralism in International Air Transport." Diplomacy & Statecraft 2, no. 2 (June 1991): 270–93.
Scammell, Henry. "The Skies, the Limits." Air & Space Smithsonian 9, no. 4 (October 1994): 82-92.
Sochor, Eugene. "ICAO and Armed Attacks against Civil Aviation." International Journal 44, no. 1 (December 1988): 134–70.
Sundaram, S. P. "Peace through Co-operation: The ICAO Example." Peace Research 34, no. 2 (2002): 95-99.
Wallis, Rodney. "The Role of the International Aviation Organisations in Enhancing Security." Terrorism & Political Violence 10, no. 3 (September 1998): 83-101.
Weber, Ludwig. International Civil Aviation Organization: An Introduction. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2011.
Zaidi, Waqar H. "'Aviation Will Either Destroy or Save Our Civilization': Proposals for the International Control of Aviation, 1920-45." Journal of Contemporary History 46, no. 1 (January 2011): 150–78.
Alberti, Manfredi. "Italian Welfare as Seen from the Standpoint of the International Labour Organization (1944–68)." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 22, no. 2 (March 2017): 194–211.
Alcock, Antony Evelyn. History of the International Labor Organization. New York: Octagon Books, 1971.
Alexander, Robert J. and Eldon M. Parker. International Labor Organizations and Organized Labor in Latin America and the Caribbean: A History. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2009.
Allen, Joan, Alan Campbell, and John McIlroy. Histories of Labour: National and International Perspectives. Brecon: Merlin Press, 2010.
Benanav, Aaron. "The Origins of Informality: The ILO at the Limit of the Concept of Unemployment." Journal of Global History 14, no. 1 (March 2019): 107-125
Bernards, Nick. "The Global Governance of Informal Economies: The International Labour Organization in East Africa." Third World Quarterly 38, no. 8 (August 2017): 1831–46.
Breuer, Martin. ¨Exploring the Technical Assistance Activities of the International Labor Organization in the Field of Indigenous Peoples: Development and Human Rights in the Andean Indian Program (1954-1968)." FIAR: Forum for Inter-American Research 11, no. 3 (December 2018): 110–23.
Cayet, Thomas, Paul-André Rosental, and Marie Thébaud-Sorger. "How International Organisations Compete: Occupational Safety and Health at the ILO, a Diplomacy of Expertise." Journal of Modern European History 7, no. 2 (2009): 174-196.
Cobble, Dorothy Sue. "Who Speaks for Workers? Japan and the 1919 ILO Debates Over Rights and Global Labor Standards." International Labor & Working-Class History 87 (March 2015): 213–34.
Guinand, Cédric. "The Creation of the ISSA and the ILO." International Social Security Review 61, no. 1 (2008): 81-98.
Hughes, Stephen and Nigel Haworth. The International Labour Organization (ILO): Coming in from the Cold. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Hughes, Stephen, and Nigel Haworth. "Foundations for Longevity: The ILO, New Zealand and the Strategies of Autonomy, Relevance and Presence." Labor History 54, no. 3 (July 2013): 286–300.
Kerrissey, Jasmine, and Jeff Schuhrke. "Life Chances: Labor Rights, International Institutions, and Worker Fatalities in the Global South." Social Forces 95, no. 1 (September 2016): 191–216.
Kott, Sandrine and Joel Golb. "The Forced Labor Issue between Human and Social Rights, 1947-1957." Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 3, no. 3 (2012): 321-335.
Kott, Sandrine, and Joëlle Droux. Globalizing Social Rights: The International Labour Organization and beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Kott, Sandrine. "An "Epistemological Community" of the Social Domain? Experts of the ILO and Internationalization of Social Politics in the Interbellum." Geneses: Sciences Sociales Et Histoire no. 2 (2008): 26-46.
Kott, Sandrine. "Fighting the War Or Preparing for Peace? The ILO during the Second World War." Journal of Modern European History 12, no. 3 (2014): 359-376.
Kott, Sandrine. "Organizing World Peace: The International Labour Organisation from the Second World War to the Cold War." In Seeking Peace in the Wake of War: Europe, 1943-1947,edited by Stefan-Ludwig Hoffmann, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2016, 297-315.
Kott, Sandrine. "The Dynamics of Internationalization: Germany and the International Labor Organization (1919-1940)." Critique Internationale no. 3 (2011): 69-84.
Kunkel, Sarah. "Forced Labour, Roads, and Chiefs: The Implementation of the ILO Forced Labour Convention in the Gold Coast." International Review of Social History 63, no. 3 (December 2018): 449–76.
Maul, Daniel. "'Help Them Move the ILO Way': The International Labor Organization and the Modernization Discourse in the Era of Decolonization and the Cold War." Diplomatic History 33, no. 3 (June 2009): 387–404.
Maul, Daniel. "The International Labour Organization and the Struggle against Forced Labour from 1919 to the Present." Labor History 48, no. 4 (November 2007): 477–500.
Maul, Daniel. Human Rights, Development, and Decolonization: The International Labour Organization, 1940-70. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Pahle, Simon. "What Difference Does the International Labour Organisation Make? Freedom of Association Norms, Supervision and Promotion vis-à-vis Brazil." Labor History 55, no. 4 (October 2014): 465–85.
Rodgers, Gerry. The International Labour Organization and the Quest for Social Justice, 1919-2009. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2009.
Sinclair, Guy Fiti. "A 'Civilizing Task': The International Labour Organization, Social Reform, and the Genealogy of Development." Journal of the History of International Law 20, no. 2 (April 2018): 145–97.
Van Daele, Jasmien. ILO Histories: Essays on the International Labour Organization and its Impact on the World during the Twentieth Century. Bern: Peter Lang, 2010.
Van Daele, Jasmien. "The International Labour Organization (ILO) in Past and Present Research." International Review of Social History 53, no. 3 (December 2008): 485–511.
Degenhardt, Henry W. and Alan J. Day. Maritime Affairs--a World Handbook: A Reference Guide to Maritime Organizations, Conventions, and Disputes, and to the International Politics of the Sea. Detroit; Harlow, Essex, U.K: Gale Research Co, 1985.
Halberstam, Malvina. "Terrorism on the High Seas: The Achille Lauro, Piracy and the Imo Convention on Maritime Safety." American Journal of International Law 82, no. 2 (April 1988): 269–310.
Henry, Cleopatra Elmira. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea: The Role of the International Maritime Organisation in International Legislation. London: Pinter, 1985.
Kraska, James. "Effective Implementation of the 2005 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation." Naval War College Review 70, no. 1 (Winter 2017): 10–22.
Lφvald, Johan Ludivk. "In Search of an Ocean Regime: The Negotiations in the General Assembly's Seabed Committee 1968–1970." International Organization 29, no. 3 (1975): 681-709.
Simmonds, K. R. The International Maritime Organization. London: Simmonds & Hill Pub, 1994.
UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. See the theme ‘development’ for further details.
Bredel, Ralf, Long-term conflict prevention and industrial development: the United Nations and its specialized agency, UNIDO (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003).
Lambert, Youry, The United Nations Industrial Development Organization: UNIDO and problems of international economic cooperation (Praeger, 1993).
United Nations Industrial Development Organization: 30 years of industrial development, 1966-1996 (ISC in association with UNIDO, 1995).
It is dedicated to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property (IP) system, which rewards creativity, stimulates innovation and contributes to economic development while safeguarding the public interest.
Deere-Birkbeck, Carolyn. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): A Reference Guide. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.
De Beer, Jeremy. Implementing the World Intellectual Property Organization's Development Agenda. Ottawa: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2009.
Lawson, Charles, Edwin Bikundo, and Kieran Tranter. "The Perils of Parliamentarism:
The World Intellectual Property Organization and Indigenous Peoples." Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (2019): 1-31.
Marx, Johannes. "Path Dependency and Change in International Relations: Institutional Dynamics in the Field of Intellectual Property Rights." Historical Social Research 35, no. 3 (September 2010): 175–99.
May, Christopher and Susan K. Sell. Intellectual Property Rights: A Critical History. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006.
May, Christopher. "The World Intellectual Property Organization." New Political Economy 11, no. 3 (2006): 435-445.
May, Christopher. The World Intellectual Property Organization: Resurgence and the Development Agenda. New York: Routledge, 2007.
Oguamanam, Chidi. Intellectual Property in Global Governance: A Development Question. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Seckelmann, Margrit. "From the Paris Convention (1883) to the TRIPS Agreement (1994): The History of the International Patent Agreements as a History of Propertisation?" Comparativ 21, no. 2 (April 2011): 46–63.
Siegrist, Hannes, and Isabella Löhr. “Intellectual Property Rights Between Nationalization and Globalization.” Comparativ 21, no. 2 (2017): 7-28.
It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
Bibliographies and Primary Sources
Bierly, Eugene W. "The World Climate Program: Collaboration and Communication on a Global Scale." Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 495 (January 1988): 106–16.
Borowitz, Mariel. "World Meteorological Organization." In Open Space: The Global Effort for Open Access to Environmental Satellite Data, edited by Mariel Borowitz, 63-77. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017.
Cannegieter, Hendrik Gerrit. History of the International Meteorological Organization, 1872-1951. Offenbach: Deutscher Wetterdienst, 1963.
Daniel, Howard. One Hundred Years of International Co-Operation in Meteorology (1873-1973): A Historical Review. Geneva: Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization 1973.
Davies, David Arthur. "The Role of the WMO in Environmental Issues." International Organization 26, no. 2 (Spring 1972): 327-337.
Davies, Sir Arthur and Oliver M. Ashford. Forty Years of Progress and Achievement: A Historical Review of WMO. Geneva, Switzerland: Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, 1990.
Edwards, Paul N. "Meteorology as Infrastructural Globalism." Osiris 21, no. 1 (February 2006): 229–50.
The UNWTO is the leading international organization in the field of tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a practical source of tourism know-how. It plays a central and decisive role in promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism, paying particular attention to the interests of developing countries.
Bibliographies and Primary Sources
Ferguson, Lucy. "The United Nations World Tourism Organisation." New Political Economy 12, no. 4 (2007): 557-68.
Gordon, Bertram M. "Touring the Field: The Infrastructure of Tourism History Scholarship." Journal of Tourism History 7, no. 1/2 (January 2015): 135–56.
Herman, Grigore Vasile, Vasile Grama, and Marius I. Stupairu. "the International Organisations between Globalization and Regionalization. Case Study: World Tourism Organization." Revista Română De Geografie Politică 18, no. 2 (2016): 49-59.
Lanquar, Robert Germain. "The Organizational Development of the World Tourism Organization: A Case Study." PhD diss., Texas A&M University, 1983.
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs implements the decisions of the General Assembly and of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The office has the dual objective of supporting the intergovernmental discussions in the Committee and its Scientific and TechnicalSubcommittee(S&T) and Legal Subcommittee, and of assisting developing countries in using space technology for development.
McDougall, Walter A., "Technocracy and Statecraft in the Space Age," American Historical Review 87.4 (1982), pp. 1010-1040.
Miles, Edward, "Transnationalism in Space: Inner and Outer," International Organization 25.3 (1971), pp. 602-626.
Its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service.
The ICC was establishedas a common service, providing a wide range of Information and Communication Technology Services, on a cost recovery basis, to its users worldwide. It was originally set up to meet the needs of three organizations; the UN, the UNDP and WHO were the founding organizations of the ICC. The Centre has grown over the years to count now more than 25 Partner Organizations and a large number of other Users.
Malta was first to raise the question of Ageing as a matter of international concern at the United Nations in 1968. Eventually in 1979 the General Assembly agreed to call a World Assembly on Aging in 1982. In its Resolution 37/51 it recommended inter-alia the promotion of training and research, as well as the exchange of information and knowledge in order to provide an international basis for social policies and action.
The Authority is the organization through which States Parties to the Convention shall, in accordance with the regime for the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (the Area) established in Part XI and the Agreement, organize and control activities in the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area.
The ISDR's mandate is to serve as the focal point in the United Nations system for the coordination of disaster reduction and to ensure synergies among disaster reduction activities.
The Inspectors have the broadest powers of investigation in all matters having a bearing on the efficiency of the services and the proper use of funds and, to these ends, may make on-the-spot inquiries and investigations. They are mandated to provide an independent view through inspection and evaluation aimed at improving management and methods and at achieving greater coordination between organizations.
The United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) promotes constructive relations between the United Nations and civil society through dynamic partnerships to foster greater coherence around cross-cutting and emerging issues on the UN’s agenda and by facilitating meaningful civil society engagement in UN processes.
United Nations Board of Auditors
United Nations Office for Partnerships
United Nations Geographic Information
United Nations Institute for Training
UNODC is mandated to assist Member States in their struggle against illicit drugs, crime and terrorism. In the Millennium Declaration, Member States also resolved to intensify efforts to fight transnational crime in all its dimensions, to redouble the efforts to implement the commitment to counter the world drug problem and to take concerted action against international terrorism.
UNOPS mission is to expand the capacity of the UN system and its partners to implement peacebuilding, humanitarian and development operations that matter for people in need.