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Steinar Andresen, “Key Actors in UN Environmental Governance: Influence, Reform and Leadership,” International Environmental Agreements 7 (2007), 457-468.

Stephen Andersen and K. Madhava Sarma, Protecting the Ozone Layer: the United Nations History (London: Earthscan Publications, 2002).

T.C. Bacon, “The Role of The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in the Development of International Environmental Law,” Canadian Yearbook of International Law 12 (1974), 255-266.

Frank Biermann, “From Intergovernmental Environmental Policy to Earth System Governance.” Politics and the Life Sciences 21:2 (2002), 72-78.

Tony Brenton, The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolution of International Environmental Politics (London: RIIA/Earthscan, 1994).

William Burns, “Loss and Damage and the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law. 22:2 (2016), 415-433.

Daniel Bodansky, "How We Got Here: A Brief History," in The Art and Craft of International Environmental Law (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010), 18-36.

Lynton Keith Caldwell, Environmental Policy: From the Twentieth to the Twenty-First Century (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996).

Ken Conca, “Greening the United Nations: Environmental Organisations and the UN System,” Third World Quarterly, 16:3 (2005), 441–457.

Elizabeth DeSombre, “United Nations Environmental Machinery,” in Global Environmental Institution (London: Routledge, 2006), 7-41.

Sebastian von Einsiedel et al, “Evolution of the United Nations Security Concept: Role of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change” in Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. ed. Hans Günter Brauch, et al. (New York: Springer, 2007), 621- 636.

Andrea Gerlak, “‘Ways of Knowing’ Water: Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Security as Complementary Discourses," International Environmental Agreements, 15 (2015), 257-272.

Mark Allan Gray, “The United Nations Environment Programme: An Assessment,” Environmental Law 20 (1990), 291-319.

Green Planet Blues: Four Decades of Global Environmental Politics, ed. Ken Conca and Geoff Dabelko (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2010),

J.D. Hamblin, “Environmentalism for the Atlantic Alliance: NATO's Experiment with the ‘Challenges of Modern Society,’” Environmental History 15:1 (2010), 54-75.

Jodie Hierlmeier, “UNEP: Retrospect and Prospect - Options for Reforming the Global Environmental Governance Regime.” Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 14:4 (2002), 767-807.

Ann Hooker, “The International Law of Forests,” National Resources Journal 34 (Washington D.C., 1994), 823-877.

Mark Imber, “Too Many Cooks? The post-Rio reform of the United Nations,” International Affairs 69 (1993): 1, 55-70.

Maria Ivanova, “Can the anchor hold? Rethinking the United Nations Environment Programme for the 21st Century.” Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Report 7 (New Haven, 2005).

Maria Ivanova, “Designing the United Nations Environment Programme: A Story of Compromise and Confrontation,” International Environmental Agreements, 7 (2007), 337-361.

Stanley Johnson. UNEP: The First 40 Years, A Narrative (Nairobi: UNEP, 2012).

Kathleen McAfee, “Selling Nature to Save it? Biodiversity and Green Developmentalism,” Environment and Planning Development: Society and Space, 17 (1999), 133-154.

J. R. McNeill and Corinna R. Unger (editors), Environmental Histories of the Cold War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

J.R. McNeill, “The Environment, Environmentalism, and International Society in the Long 1970s.” In The Shock of the Global: The 1970s in Perspective, ed. Niall Ferguson, et al, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2010): 263-278.

Carol A. Petsonk, “Recent Developments in International Organizations. The Role of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the Development of International Environmental Law,” American University International Law Review 5 (1990): 2, 351-391.

Smith, George P. “The United Nations and the Environment. Sometimes a Great Notion?” Texas International Law Journal 19 (1984): 335-364.

Craig Murphy, The United Nations Development Programme: A Better Way? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Ved Nanda, “International Environmental and Nuclear Law: The Mounting Environmental Challenges, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the Reform of the International Environmental Governance Regime,” University of Hawaii Law Review 35 (2013), 539-558.

Kola Odeku, “The Success Story and Sustainability of the Ozone Layer Recovery,” Journal of Human Ecology 55 (2016), 15-20.

Susan Park, “Bankers Governing the Environment? Private Authority, Power Diffusion and the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative,” in Suzzini et al, The Diffusion of Power in Global Governance, (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 141-171.

Nicholas Robinson and Gary Waxmonsky, “The U.S.-U.S.S.R. Agreement to Protect the Environment: 15 Years of Cooperation,” Lewis & Clark Law School Environmental Law Review 18 (1988), 403-447.

Hal Rothman, The Greening of a Nation? Environmentalism in the United States Since 1945 (London: Harcourt Brace, 1998).

John Shandra, Heidi Rademache,r and Carolyn Coburn, “The World Bank and Organized Hypocrisy? A Cross-National Analysis of Structural Adjustment and Forest Loss,” Environmental Sociology 2:2 (2016), 192-207.

Peter Sand, “Lessons Learned in Global Environmental Governance,” Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 18 (1991), 213-277.

Philippe Sands et al, “History” in Principles of International Environmental Law, ed. Philippe Sands and Jacqueline Peel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 22-49.

Nico Schrijver, Development without Destruction: The UN and Global Resource Management (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010).

D. John Shaw, World Food Security: A History since 1945 (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007).

James Speth, and Peter Haas, Global Environmental Governance: Foundations of Contemporary Environmental Studies (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006).

Mostafa Tolba and Iwona Rummel-Bulska, Global Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating Environment Agreements for the World, 1973-1992 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1998).

Frank Uekoetter, The Age of Smoke: Environmental Policy in Germany and the United States, 1880-1970 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009).

George Unruh, “The United Nations Global Compact Environmental Principles: Achievements, Trends and Challenges” in The United Nations Global Compact: Achievements, Trends and Challenges, ed. Andreas Rasche and Georg Kell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 59-79.

Marjanneke Vijge, “The Promise of New Institutionalism: Explaining the Absence of a World or United Nations Environment Organisation,” International Environmental Agreements, 13 (2007), 153-176.

Thomas Wellock, Preserving the Nation: The Conservation and Environmental Movements, 1870-2000 (Wheeling, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 2007).

Yoshiki Yamagata, et al. “State Power and Diffusion Processes in the Ratification of Global Environmental Treaties, 1981–2008,” International Environmental Agreements (2016), 1-29.



“The Biosphere Conference: 25 Years Later,” UNESCO, 1993.

Fiona McConnell, The Biodiversity Convention: a Negotiating History: a Personal Account of Negotiating the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, and After (London: Kluwer Law International, 1996).

Mostafa Tolba with Iwona Rummel-Bulska, Global Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating Environment Agreements for the World, 1973-1992 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998).

Russell E. Train, Politics, Pollution and Pandas: An Environmental Memoir, (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003).

Barbara Ward and Rene Jules Dubos, Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet: an Unofficial Report Commissioned by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. (Harmoundsworth: Penguin, 1972).

Thomas G. Weiss, UN Voices: The Struggle for Development and Social Justice. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005).



The Anthropocene is name proposed for the current geologic era, one defined by human actions. The frame of the Anthropocene explicitly recognizes the profound global implications of human activities and implicitly calls for an ethic of responsibility and care.

Frank Biermann, “Greening the United Nations Charter: World Politics in the Anthropocene,” Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 54:3, (2012): 6-7.

Libby Robin and Will Steffen, “History for the Anthropocene.” History Compass 5:5 (2007): 1694-1719.

Will Steffen, et al, “The Anthropocene from Global Chance to Planetary Stewardship.” Ambio 40 (2011): 739-61.

Mark Whitehead. “Governing the Environment” in Environmental Transformations: A Geography of the Anthropocene (New York: Routledge, 2014), 123-141.





“Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal,” 1989.

“Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution,” Geneva, 1979.

“Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment,” Stockholm, June 1972.

“Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development,” World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002.

“Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,” Montreal, 1987.

“Our Common Future: The Brundtland Report.” World Commission on Environment and Development, United Nations, 1987.

“The Problems of Human Environment,” United Nations General Assembly, November 6, 1968.  

“Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,” Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm (1992).

“The Scientific Conference on Resource Conservation and Utilization,” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 1948.
“Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer,” Vienna, 1985.



“An Analytical Framework for Evaluating a Diverse Climate Change Portfolio,” Michael Carbon, UNEP 2010, Climate Change Strategy for the UNEP Programme of Work 2010–2011.
“A Changing Climate Creates Pervasive Risks but Opportunities Exist for Effective Responses,” IPCC Report, United Nations Environment Programme (2014).
“Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (2014).
Peter Jackson, “From Stockholm to Kyoto: A Brief History of Climate Change,” UN Chronicle (2007).
Jill Jaeger, “Developing Policies for Responding to Climatic Change: A Summary of the Discussions and Recommendations of the Workshops Held in Villach,” United Nations Environment Programme (1988).
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1998).

“Marrakech Action Proclamation,” United Nations Environment Programme (2016).

“The Paris Agreement,” United Nations Environment Programme (2015).  

David Satterthwaite. “Cities’ contribution to global warming: notes on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions,” Environment & Urbanization 20:2 (IIED, 2008): 539–549.



Peter Acquah, “History of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment, 1985-2005.” (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2006).

“Global Environmental Outlook (CEO-5), Landmark Environmental Assessment,” (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2012).
“Greening the Blue Report 2016: The UN System's Environmental Footprint and Efforts to Reduce It,” United Nations Environment Programme, 2016.
Bayly Guslits,  “The War on Water: International Water Security,” University of Western Ontario (2011).
Human Development Report (HDR). “Sustainability and equity: a better future for all.” United Nations Development Programme (New York, NY: 2011).  
“Keeping Track of Our Changing Environment: From Rio to Rio+20 (1992-2012)”  (Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2011).  

“Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict: An Inventory and Analysis of International Law,” United Nations Environment Programme (2009)
Pruss-Ustun et al. “Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments: A Global Assessment of the Burden of Disease from Environmental Risks.” World Health Organization (2016).
“Rapid Change in the Arctic” United Nations Environment Programme Year eBook (2014).

“Report on Achievements for the Year 2015: Putting Biodiversity at the Heart of Decision-Making,” United Nations Environment Programme (2016).
“The World’s Protected Areas: Status, values and prospects in the 21st century.” Chape, Spalding & Jenkins. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2008.

“World Database on Protected Areas User Manual 1.4,” United Nations Environment Programme (2016).



UNEP, GC1, 1973.

UNEP, GC2, 1974.

UNEP, GC3, 1975.

UNEP, GC4, 1976.

UNEP, GC5, 1977.

UNEP, GC6, 1978.

UNEP, GC7, 1979.

UNEP, GC8, 1980.

UNEP, GC9, 1981.

UNEP, GC10, 1982.

UNEP, GC11, 1983.

UNEP, GC12, 1984.

UNEP, GC13, 1985.

UNEP, GC14, 1987.

UNEP, GC15, 1989.

UNEP, GC16, 1991.

UNEP, GC17, 1993.

UNEP, GC18, 1995.

UNEP, GC19, 1997.

UNEP, GC20, 1999.

UNEP, GC21, 2001.

UNEP, GC22, 2003.

UNEP, GC23, 2005.

UNEP, GC24, 2007.

UNEP, GC25, 2009.

UNEP, GC26, 2011.

UNEP, GC27, 2013.