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A Guide to the World Bank
This completely revised and updated third edition provides an accessible and straightforward overview of the World Bank Group's history, organization, mission, and purpose.

Global Development Horizons 2011
The first edition of a new World Bank flagship report, 'Global Development Horizons 2011' addresses the shift in the balance of global growth from developed to emerging economies, the rise of emerging-market firms as a force in global business, and the evolution of the international monetary system toward a multicurrency regime.

Cities and Climate Change
This book provides the latest knowledge and practice in responding to the challenge of climate change in cities.  Case studies focus on topics such as New Orleans in the context of a fragile environment, a framework to include poverty in the cities and climate change discussion, and measuring the impact of GHG emissions.

World Development Indicators 2011
Looking for accurate, up-to-date data on development issues? 'World Development Indicators' is the World Bank's premier annual compilation of data about development. This indispensable statistical reference allows you to consult over 800 indicators for more than 150 economies and 14 country groups in more than 90 tables.

Atlas of Global Development
'This is an excellent, up-to-date source book which will be invaluable for students of, and staff teaching, higher levels of geography.

Global Monitoring Report 2011
With less than five years left to achieve the MDGs, this year's report looks at the prospects and challenges for reaching the goals. It also examines the great diversity of performance across indicators, countries, and categories of countries to determine the necessary policies to fill the remaining gaps.


The World Bank's annual World Development Report provides a wide international readership with an extraordinary window on development economics. Each year, the report focuses on a specific aspect of development, such as gender equality in 2012. For the full online text of all WDRs from 1998 onwards, see here »


The World Bank's annual Global Development Finance combines a diagnosis of recent trends and prospects for capital flows to developing countries with an analysis of important policy issues, and is published in the spring of each year. See here for the reports that use data from 1970 to 2010.


The Human Development Report is an independent publication commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Its editorial autonomy is guaranteed by a special resolution of the General Assembly (A/RES/57/264), which recognizes the Human Development Report as an independent intellectual exercise and an important tool for raising awareness about human development around the world."

  • HDR 2011
  • HDR 2010
  • HDR 2009
  • HDR 2007/8
  • HDR 2006
  • HDR 2005
  • HDR 2004
  • HDR 2003
  • HDR 2002
  • HDR 2001
  • HDR 2000
  • HDR 1999
  • HDR 1998
  • HDR 1997
  • HDR 1996
  • HDR 1995
  • HDR 1994
  • HDR 1993
  • HDR 1992
  • HDR 1991
  • HDR 1990

  • Latin America and the Caribbean Human Development Report 2010 15 Nov 2010

    Arab Human Development Report 2009 26 May 2009

    Search here for World Bank Publications and working papers on myriad aspects of development.

    View more Human Development Reports


    Find the latest statistics for all UN member-states

    Our data, easy to explore, visualize and communicate

    Chart human development statistics for all nations

    Regional and national trends for 1970-2010

    Create unique country comparisons and rankings

    Explore development data over the past 30 years



    The World Bank's Policy Research Report series brings to a broad audience the results of World Bank research on development policy. The reports are designed to contribute to the debate on appropriate public policies for developing economies. See here for all the reports online, including work on agriculture, local development, gender and development, and the environment.


    ADePT was developed to automate and standardize the production of analytical reports. ADePT uses micro-level data from various types of surveys, such as Household Budget Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys and Labor Force surveys to produce rich sets of tables and graphs for a particular area of economic research.

    Platform for performing macroeconomic simulations

    Poverty Analysis Tool assess global poverty incidence figures

    Provides computational solutions to poverty mapping activities


    See here for the UNDP site with featured reports on a variety of topics, fast facts, and MDG reports.


    Akçalı, Emel, and Marco Antonsich. “‘Nature Knows No Boundaries’: A Critical Reading of UNDP Environmental Peacemaking in Cyprus.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99, no. 5 (December 2009): 940–947.

    Alacevich, Michele. “Early Development Economics Debates Revisited.” Journal of the History of Economic Thought 33, no. 2 (June 2011): 145–171.

    Alacevich, Michele. The Political Economy of the World Bank: The Early Years. Stanford: Stanford Economics and Finance; Washington DC: World Bank, 2009.

    Alacevich, Michele. “The World Bank and the Politics of Productivity: The Debate on Economic Growth, Poverty, and Living Standards in the 1950s” Journal of Global History 6, no. 1 (March 2011): 53–74.

    Alacevich, Michele. “The World Bank’s Early Reflections on Development: A Development Institution or a Bank?” Review of Political Economy 21, no. 2 (April 1, 2009): 227–244.

    Babalola, Joel B., and Anne L. Sikwibele. “Education as Aided by the World Bank: A Critical Analysis of Post-Independence Projects in Nigeria.” Journal of Third World Studies 17, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 155–163.

    Babb, Sarah. “The IMF in Sociological Perspective: A Tale of Organizational Slippage.” Studies in Comparative International Development; New York 38, no. 2 (June 2003): 3–27.

    Blackmon, Pamela. “Factoring Gender into Economic Development: Changing the Policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.” Women’s Studies 38, no. 2 (January 2009): 213–237.

    Bottelier, Pieter. “China and the World Bank: How a Partnership Was Built.” Journal of Contemporary China 16, no. 51 (May 2007): 239–258.

    Boughton, James M. Silent Revolution: The International Monetary Fund, 1979-1989. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2001.

    Brady, Lisa M. “Sowing War, Reaping Peace: United Nations Resource Development Programs in the Republic of Korea, 1950–1953.” Journal of Asian Studies 77, no. 2 (May 2018): 351–363.

    Breuer, Martin. “Exploring the Technical Assistance Activities of the International Labor Organization in the Field of Indigenous Peoples: Development and Human Rights in the Andean Indian Program (1954-1968).” FIAR: Forum for Inter-American Research 11, no. 3 (December 2018): 110–123.

    Browne, Stephen. The United Nations Development Programme and System. New York: Routledge, 2011.

    Chwieroth, Jeffrey M. Capital Ideas: The IMF and the Rise of Financial Liberalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

    Clark, William. “Robert McNamara at the World Bank.” Foreign Affairs 60, no. 1 (Fall 1981): 167–184.

    Coats, A. W., ed. The Post-1945 Internationalization of Economics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996.

    Coburn, Carolyn, Michael Restivo, and John M Shandra. “The African Development Bank and Infant Mortality: A Cross-National Analysis of Structural Adjustment and Investment Lending from 1990 to 2006.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 56, no. 3–4 (June 2015): 275–296.

    Crombois, Jean F. Camille Gutt and Postwar International Finance. London: Routledge, 2015.

    De Vries, Margaret Garritsen. Balance of Payments Adjustment, 1945 to 1986: The IMF Experience. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1987.

    De Vries, Margaret Garritsen. The IMF in a Changing World, 1945-85. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1986.

    De Vries, Margaret Garritsen. The International Monetary Fund, 1966-1971: The System under Stress. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1976.

    De Vries, Margaret Garritsen. The International Monetary Fund, 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1985.

    Einhorn, Jessica. “The World Bank’s Mission Creep.” Foreign Affairs 80, no. 5 (September 2001): 22–35.

    Endres, Anthony Mark. International Financial Integration: Competing Ideas and Policies in the Post Bretton Woods Era. Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

    Everill, Bronwen, and Josiah David Kaplan. The History and Practice of Humanitarian Intervention and Aid in Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

    Fonchingong, Tangie Nsoh. “Multilateral Assistance for Self-Reliant Development?: The UNDP in Cameroon 1972-1983.” Ph. D. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1984.

    Frey, Marc. “Neo-Malthusianism and Development: Shifting Interpretations of a Contested Paradigm.” Journal of Global History 6, no. 1 (March 2011): 75–97.

    Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, and A. K. Shiva Kumar, eds. Readings in Human Development: Concepts, Measures, and Policies for a Development Paradigm. New Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

    Gould, Erica R. Money Talks: The International Monetary Fund, Conditionality, and Supplementary Financiers. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

    Harrigan, Jane, and Paul Mosley. “Evaluating the Impact of World Bank Structural Adjustment Lending: 1980-87.” Journal of Development Studies 27, no. 3 (April 1991): 63-95.

    Helleiner, Eric. Forgotten Foundations of Bretton Woods: International Development and the Making of the Postwar Order. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014.

    Helleiner, Eric. “The Development Mandate of International Institutions: Where Did It Come From?” Studies in Comparative International Development 44, no. 3 (September 2009): 189–211.

    Hetherington, Kregg. “The Strategic Incoherence of Development: Marketing Expertise in the World Development Report.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36, no. 3 (July 2009): 653–661.

    Hodge, Joseph M. “British Colonial Expertise, Post-Colonial Careering and the Early History of International Development.” Journal of Modern European History 8, no. 1 (January 2010): 24–46.

    Horsefield, J. Keith, and Margaret Garritsen De Vries, eds. The International Monetary Fund, 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 1969.

    Humphreys, Norman K. Historical Dictionary of the International Monetary Fund. International Organizations Series, no. 2. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.

    Iandolo, Alessandro. “The Rise and Fall of the ‘Soviet Model of Development’ in West Africa, 1957–64.” Cold War History 12, no. 4 (November 2012): 683–704.

    James, Harold. International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods. Washington, DC: New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Jerven, Morten. Poor Numbers: How We Are Misled by African Development Statistics and What to Do about It. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013.

    Kirk, Jason A. “Banking on India’s States: The Politics of World Bank Reform Programs in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.” India Review 4, no. 3/4 (July 2005): 287–325.

    Kraske, Jochen, ed. Bankers with a Mission: The Presidents of the World Bank, 1946-91. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Lavelle, Kathryn C. “Ideas within a Context of Power: The African Group in an Evolving UNCTAD.” Journal of Modern African Studies 39, no. 1 (March 2001): 25.

    Macekura, Stephen, and Erez Manela, eds. The Development Century: A Global History. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

    McGillivray, Mark. “Policy-Based Lending, Structural Adjustment and Economic Growth in Pakistan.” Journal of Policy Modeling 25, no. 2 (February 2003): 113–121.

    McNamara, Robert S. The McNamara Years at the World Bank: Major Policy Addresses of Robert S. McNamara, 1968-1981; with Forewords by Helmut Schmidt, and Léopold Senghor. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

    Morgan, Mary S., and Maria Bach. “Measuring Development—from the UN’s Perspective.” History of Political Economy 50, no. S1 (December 2018): 193–210.

    Muirhead, Bruce. “Differing Perspectives: India, the World Bank and the 1963 Aid-India Negotiations.” India Review 4, no. 1 (March 2005): 1–22.

    Murphy, Craig. The Emergence of the NIEO Ideology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.

    Murphy, Craig. The United Nations Development Programme: A Better Way? Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

    Ogle, Vanessa. “State Rights against Private Capital: The ‘New International Economic Order’ and the Struggle over Aid, Trade, and Foreign Investment, 1962–1981.” Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 5, no. 2 (July 2014): 211–234.

    Oliver, Robert W. George Woods and the World Bank. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 1995.

    Pauly, Louis W. “International Financial Institutions and National Economic Governance: Aspects of the New Adjustment Agenda in Historical Perspective.” In International Financial History in the Twentieth Century: System and Anarchy, edited by Marc Flandreau, Carl-Ludwig Holtfrerich, and Harold James, 239–64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

    Peet, Richard, ed. Unholy Trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO. New York: Zed Books, 2003.

    Protopsaltis, Panayotis M. “Deciphering UN Development Policies: From the Modernisation Paradigm to the Human Development Approach?” Third World Quarterly 38, no. 8 (August 2017): 1733–1752.

    Richardson, Jayson W. “Toward Democracy: A Critique of a World Bank Loan to the United Mexican States.” Review of Policy Research 22, no. 4 (July 2005): 473–482.

    Rosser, Andrew, and Sharna Bremner. “The World Bank’s Health Projects in Timor-Leste: The Political Economy of Effective Aid.” International Peacekeeping 22, no. 4 (August 2015): 435–451.

    Roy, Pallavi. “Economic Growth, the UN and the Global South: An Unfulfilled Promise.” Third World Quarterly 37, no. 7 (July 2016): 1284–1297.

    Salman, Salman M. A. The World Bank Policy for Projects on International Waterways: An Historical and Legal Analysis. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.

    Santiso, Carlos. “Promoting Democratic Governance and Preventing the Recurrence of Conflict: The Role of the United Nations Development Programme in Post-Conflict Peace-Building.” Journal of Latin American Studies 34, no. 3 (August 2002): 555-586.

    Sayward, Amy L. The Birth of Development: How the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization Changed the World, 1945-1965. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2006.

    Sayward, Amy L. “The Development Enterprise.” In The United Nations in International History, by Amy L. Sayward. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.

    Sener, Meltem Yilmaz. “How the World Bank Manages Social Risks: Implementation of the Social Risk Mitigation Project in Turkey.” Third World Quarterly 36, no. 4 (April 2015): 758–775.

    Sharma, Patrick. “Bureaucratic Imperatives and Policy Outcomes: The Origins of World Bank Structural Adjustment Lending.” Review of International Political Economy 20, no. 4 (August 2013): 667–686.

    Sharma, Patrick Allan. Robert McNamara’s Other War: The World Bank and International Development. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017.

    Shaw, D. John. The UN World Food Programme and the Development of Food Aid. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave, 2001.

    Shaw, D. John. “Turning Point in the Evolution of Soft Financing: The United Nations and the World Bank.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne d’études du développement 26, no. 1 (January 2005): 43–61.

    Sinclair, Guy Fiti. “A ‘Civilizing Task’: The International Labour Organization, Social Reform, and the Genealogy of Development.” Journal of the History of International Law 20, no. 2 (April 2018): 145–197.

    Stokke, Olav. The UN and Development: From Aid to Cooperation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009.

    Telleria, Juan. “Power Relations? What Power Relations? The de-Politicising Conceptualisation of Development of the UNDP.” Third World Quarterly 38, no. 9 (September 2017): 2143–2158.

    Toye, John. “The Counterrevolution in Development Economics.” History of Political Economy 50 (December 2018): 269–285.

    Vetterlein, Antje. “Economic Growth, Poverty Reduction, and the Role of Social Policies: The Evolution of the World Bank’s Social Development Approach.” Global Governance 13, no. 4 (October 2007): 513–533.

    Webster, David. “Development Advisors in a Time of Cold War and Decolonization: The United Nations Technical Assistance Administration, 1950–59” Journal of Global History 6, no. 2 (July 2011): 249–272.

    Weiss, Charles. “Science and Technology at the World Bank, 1968–83.” History and Technology 22 (March 2006): 81–104.

    Yusuf, Shahid, and Angus Deaton. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.


    International Monetary Fund, IMF Staff Papers (1998-2009)

    United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports (1990-2015)

    World Bank, Research Observers (1986-Present)

    World Bank, World Development Reports (1978-Present)


    Global Financial Development Database - World Bank (1960-2015)

    Policy Research Working Papers - World Bank